Ku dhaji bogga



Junjie Guo, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Mechanism and functions of repeat expansion self-exonization in C9orf72 ALS/FTD

As intricate as the DNA replication process is, sometimes errors happen. Some neurological diseases are linked to a particular type of error called nucleotide repeat expansion (NRE), in which a short DNA segment is repeated over and over in hundreds or more copies. Where these repeats occur in the genome matters: during a critical step in gene expression called RNA splicing, only certain pieces (exons) of the RNA transcribed from DNA are joined together to become the final messenger RNA, whereas the remaining RNA sequences (introns) between exons will be broken down.

However, in some cases, introns with NREs are not broken down, but manage to instruct the making of a variety of repeat proteins that are harmful to nerve cells. A well-known example is an intron NRE within a gene called C9orf72, which is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In his research, Dr. Guo hopes to uncover how this intron NRE disrupts RNA splicing and causes the production of toxic repeat proteins.

Guo and his team will first test a variety of NRE mutations to see which are able to change the splicing pattern so the intron can escape degradation. Their second aim will test the hypothesis that these changes in the splicing pattern are critical for the C9orf72 NRE RNA to increase its export out from the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm and instruct the making of toxic repeat proteins. Finally, their research will explore the possibility that differences between the ways in which each cell splices its RNAs may explain why certain types of nerve cells such as motor neurons are more vulnerable in ALS.

Juliet K. Knowles, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA

Neuron-to-OPC synapses in adaptive and maladaptive myelination

In her role as a pediatric clinician specializing in epilepsy, Dr. Knowles sees firsthand how this neurological disorder (actually a collection of several related but distinct diseases) is experienced and how it progresses. As a neuroscientist, she has the opportunity to help uncover how and why. Knowles and her team are focusing their research on the role of neuronal activity in myelination in patients with generalized epilepsy, a common form of the disease that is characterized by the presence of seizures and absence seizures.

Myelination is the process by which the axons (projections) of neurons are encased in myelin, which enhances the speed of axon signal transmission, and makes neural networks more efficient. The process involves oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) which can develop into oligodendrocytes, cells that produce myelin. In earlier research, Knowles uncovered that the neural activity of absence seizures promotes myelination of the seizure circuit, making it more efficient. This appears to lead to an increase in absence seizure frequency and severity; when Knowles and her team blocked the OPCs’ response to neural activity, seizure-induced myelination did not occur, and the seizures didn’t progress.

Knowles’ new research will now explore how this happens and identify possible approaches for future therapies. One aim will document the neuron to OPC synapses in both epileptic and healthy mouse models. A second aim will compare neuron-to-OPC synaptic activity and synaptic gene expression in healthy or epileptic mice – specifically focusing on how myelination promoted by a seizure differs from that promoted by learning. A third aim will explore how disrupting the post-synaptic receptors on oligodendrocytes affects the progression of epilepsy, not just in terms of seizures, but related symptoms such as disrupted sleep and cognitive impairment, both of which are common in individuals affected by epilepsy.

Akhila Rajan, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Seattle, WA

Adipocyte-brain mitochondrial signaling and its impacts on brain function

Communication between organs and the brain is critical to an animal’s survival and health. Signals tell the brain when the body needs more energy, is hungry, or needs to sleep, move or perform countless other tasks. But recent research has revealed that communication can include more than hormones – packets of material can also be passed to brain cells. Dr. Rajan’s research focuses on the phenomena of fat cells (adipocytes) sending bits of mitochondria – the organelles within cells that generate energy, among other roles – to the brain, and how that affects brain function.

Previous research has found that when these mitochondrial bits reach the brain, it makes the fly model Rajan’s team works with more hungry, specifically for high sugar foods, promoting a cycle of obesity and further sending of material. There is a known correlation between obesity and a range of neurological disorders, including sleep disorders and cognitive decline, and this new research hopes to shed light on these links and potentially identify targets for future therapies.

Working with the fly model, Rajan and her team aim to identify how exactly these bits of mitochondria are gaining access to neurons in the brain without being degraded; what happens when these bits of fat cell mitochondria integrate with neuronal mitochondria, specifically how it alters an animal’s behavior in terms of sleep and feeding; and what effect this process has on neuronal health overall. The research will take advantage of very precise genetic manipulations at which Rajan’s lab excels, involve cross-disciplinary insights provided by lab team members, and use advanced insect physiology chambers that let the team document feeding and changes in behavior at a level unavailable to previous generations of researchers.

Humsa Venkatesh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

The neurobiology of glioma: Understanding malignant neural circuits instructing tumor growth

Cancers, including brain tumors, have traditionally been studied at a cellular or molecular level. Researchers are addressing questions such as what subpopulation of cells are involved, how do they mutate, and what can we do to those malignant cells to get them to stop replicating? Dr. Venkatesh is interested in looking at how the nervous system is also involved in cancer progression and has already discovered that neurons form synaptic connections to cancer cells.

Venkatesh and her lab are studying both primary and secondary brain tumors but have evidence that these findings apply to cancers in other parts of the body. The insight that tumors are interacting with neurons, and not just killing off nerves as had once been thought, has opened many possibilities. These malignant growths are taking signals from the nervous system intended to pass information to other cells and instead reinterpreting them to instruct the cancer to grow. Now researchers can explore how to harness the nervous system to help treat or manage this malignant disease. In an exciting development, Venkatesh’s previous work in this space has already led to clinical trials that repurpose existing drugs targeting the nervous system and apply them to cancer treatment.

This new research goes even further into understanding the mechanisms governing neural circuit activity-driven glioma progression. Using advanced neuroscience technologies and patient-derived cell lines, Venkatesh will be able to modulate and study the malignant neural networks, encompassing both neurons and tumor cells, that influence cancer growth. Understanding this activity-dependent mechanism and how it can be targeted without disrupting healthy neuronal function could open new fields of cancer research and novel therapeutic opportunities.


Lisa Beutler, MD, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor ee Daawada ee Endocrinology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL

Kala qaybinta dhaqdhaqaaqa mindhicirka-maskaxda ee ka hooseeya anorexia

Quudinta ayaa ah udub dhexaadka u ah badbaadada xayawaanka, markaa la yaab maaha in mindhicirka iyo maskaxdu ay si joogto ah u wada xidhiidhaan si ay isugu xidhaan qaadashada cuntada habboon iyo miisaanka jidhka oo deggan. Si kastaba ha noqotee, joogitaanka caabuqa, nidaamkani wuxuu jabin karaa. Mid ka mid ah calaamadaha xanuunka anorexia-ku xiran ee caabuqa (aan lagu khaldin anorexia nervosa) waa rabitaanka cuntada oo yaraada, taas oo noqon karta mid aad u daran oo keeni karta nafaqo-xumo. Daawaynta hadda jirta - oo ay ku jiraan IV-ga la keeno nafaqeynta iyo tuubooyinka quudinta mindhicirka - waxay yarayn karaan tayada nolosha waxayna yeelan karaan cawaaqib dammaanad qaad ah.

Dr. Beutler waxay rabta inay adeegsato indho-indheynta neerfaha ee horumarsan iyo farsamooyinka wax-is-daba-marinta si loo kala saaro hababka hoose ee ku lug leh anorexia-xiriirta caabuqa. Kooxda Beutler waxay isticmaali doonaan sawir-qaadista kaalshiyamka si ay u muujiyaan saamaynta cytokines-ka gaarka ah (calaamadaha la sii daayo xilliga bararka) ay ku leeyihiin kooxo gaar ah oo nuucyada quudinta la xiriira. Kooxdeedu waxay sidoo kale isticmaali doontaa qalabka hidde-sideyaasha gees-goyn si ay isugu dayaan inay meesha ka saaraan calaamadaha 'ha cunin' ee aan habboonayn ee ka dhasha bararka daran. Ugu dambeyntii, waxay baran doontaa sida moodooyinka gaarka ah ee cudurka bararka u beddelaan jawaabta neerfaha ee qaadashada nafaqada.

Cilmi-baarista Beutler ayaa noqon doonta tii ugu horreysay ee lagu barto hababkan gaarka ah ee heerkan faahfaahsan ee noolaha. Iyadoo la aqoonsanayo bartilmaameedyada saxda ah ee neerfayaasha ee sii deynta cytokine, iyo qeexidda sida tani wax uga beddesho rabitaanka cuntada, Beutler waxay rajaynaysaa inay aqoonsato bartilmaameedyada daweynta ee nafaqo-xumada ee la xiriirta cudurrada caabuqa. Waxaa intaa dheer, shaybaarkeeda waxay rabta inay abuurto khariidad waddo ah oo calaamad u ah mindhicirka-maskaxda-difaaca difaaca kaas oo laga yaabo inuu saameyn weyn ku yeesho ma aha oo kaliya daaweynta caabuqa-dhexdhexaadinta anorexia, laakiin si ballaaran u quudinta mustaqbalka iyo cilmi-baarista dheef-shiid kiimikaadka.

Maalinta Jeremy, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Heersink School of Medicine, Jaamacadda Alabama - Birmingham; iyo Ian Maze, Ph.D., Professor - Waaxaha Cilmi-nafsiga iyo Sayniska Farmasiga, Agaasimaha - Xarunta Neural Epigenome Engineering, Icahn School of Medicine ee Mount Sinai, New York City

Ka faa'iidaysiga epigenomics-ka unugyada ah ee loogu talagalay wax-is-daba-marinta la beegsanayo ee isku-dhafka daroogada-firfircoon

Laqabsiga maandooriyuhu waa dhibaato halis ah labadaba shakhsiyaadka iyo bulshadaba. In kasta oo ay jirtay cilmi-baaris muhiim ah oo ku saabsan fahamka iyo daaweynta balwadda, 60% ee kuwa la daweeyay waxay la kulmi doonaan soo noqoshada. Dhab ahaantii, rabitaanka maandooriyaha ayaa laga yaabaa inay dhab ahaantii korodho wakhti ka dib, iyada oo ku dhexjirta kuwa la qabatimay xitaa iyada oo aan la kulmin daroogo dheeraad ah. Dr. Day iyo Dr. Maze waxay ujeedadoodu tahay inay cilmi-baaris ku sameeyaan qabatinka heer cusub - hoos u dhigista saamaynta epigenetic ee isticmaalka daroogada ee unugyo gaar ah oo heer unug ah, iyo sida kuwani u saadaalin karaan mawduuca soo noqoshada.

Cilmi-baaris horudhac ah ayaa muujisay in soo-gaadhista daawooyinka waqti ka dib ay beddelaan sida hiddo-wadaha loo muujiyo. Nuxur ahaan, dawooyinku waxay afduubi karaan unugyada hab-raaca hidda-wadaha ee loo yaqaanno “xoojiyeyaal,” kuwaas oo marka la hawlgeliyo sababa in hidde-sidayaasha qaarkood lagu muujiyo unugyada maskaxda kuwaas oo dhiirrigeliya mawduuca si loo raadiyo dawooyinkan. Maalinta iyo Maze waxay u qaabeeyeen mashruuc lagu aqoonsanayo kor u qaadayaashan qaab unug gaar ah oo firfircoon (ama aan la aamusin) kookeynta - kicinta si fiican loo fahmay oo la baaray - ka dibna la abuuro oo la geliyo fayraska fayraska unugyada kuwaas oo kaliya noqon doona firfircoon joogitaanka kor u qaadis aan la aamusin. Isticmaalka istaraatiijiyadan, vector-ka fayrasku wuxuu ku muujin doonaa xamuulkiisa kaliya unugyada unugyada ay saameeyeen kookeynta waxayna u oggolaadaan cilmi-baarayaasha inay si optogenetically ama chemogenetic ahaan u dhaqaajiyaan ama u hawl-geliyaan unugyada ay saameeyeen.

Taas awgeed, Maalinta iyo Maze waxay dhibi doonaan isku-dhafka si ay u baaraan saamaynta ay ku leeyihiin dabeecada raadinta daroogada ee qaabka jiirka ee is-maamulka cocaine-ta ee ikhtiyaarka ah. Shaqadoodu waxay ku dhistaa horumarkii ugu dambeeyay ee awoodda lagu beegsanayo unugyada gaarka ah iyo kooxo yaryar oo unugyo ah, halkii ay ka ahaan lahaayeen dhammaan dadweynaha unugyada ama noocyada unugyada sida diiradda cilmi-baaris hore. Hadda oo ay suurtogal tahay in diiradda la saaro doorka unugyada gaarka ah ay ciyaaraan, rajada ayaa ah in daweyn ka wanaagsan la soo saari karo kuwaas oo wax ka qabta xididdada hidde-raaca ee balwadda iyo soo noqoshada, iyo iyada oo aan lahayn waxyeellooyin taban oo ah in la maareeyo dadka waaweyn, ee aan bartilmaameedka lahayn ee unugyada maskaxda.

Stephan Lammel, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Neurobiology, Jaamacadda California - Berkeley

Neurotensin dhexdhexaadin habdhaqanka quudinta hedonic iyo cayilka

Maskaxdu waxay ku waalan tahay raadinta iyo cunista cuntada. Marka la helo cunto kaloori-cufan - naadir ku ah duurjoogta - xayawaanku waxay si dareen leh u cuni doonaan si degdeg ah. Dadka diyaarka u ah inay helaan cunto kalooriye-cufan, dareenku wuxuu mararka qaarkood u horseedaa cunto-cunid xad-dhaaf ah, cayil, iyo arrimo caafimaad oo la xidhiidha. Laakiin cilmi-baaristu waxay sidoo kale muujisay in xaaladaha qaarkood, kicinta quudinta cuntada kalooriyada sare leh laga yaabo inay yaraato marka cuntadan oo kale ah had iyo jeer la heli karo. Dr. Lammel wuxuu raadiyaa inuu aqoonsado hababka neerfaha iyo qaybaha maskaxda ee ku lug leh habdhaqanka quudinta iyo nidaamintiisa.

Daraasado la sameeyay sannadihii la soo dhaafay ayaa quudinta ku xidhay hypothalamus, qayb qadiimi ah oo qoto dheer oo maskaxda ah. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, caddayntu waxay sidoo kale tilmaamaysaa doorka abaalmarinta iyo xarumaha raaxada ee maskaxda. Cilmi-baaris horudhac ah oo Lammel ah ayaa lagu ogaaday in isku xirka nucleus accumbens lateral (NAcLat) iyo aagga ventral tegmental (VTA) ay udub dhexaad u yihiin quudinta hedonistic - kicinta in xiriirinta optogenetically ay keentay in la kordhiyo quudinta cuntooyinka kalooriga leh, laakiin aan ahayn cunto caadi ah. Cilmi-baarisyo kale ayaa lagu aqoonsaday amino acid neurotensin (NTS) inuu yahay ciyaaryahan ku jira nidaaminta quudinta, marka lagu daro doorarka kale.

Cilmi-baadhista Lammel waxa ay doonaysaa in ay khariidad ku samayso wareegga iyo doorarka qaybaha kala duwan ee maskaxda ee u horseeda xayawaanku in ay cunaan cunno-cunitaan iyo sidoo kale doorka NTS, kaas oo lagu muujiyay NAcLat. Mawduucyada waxaa lagu soo bandhigaa cunto caadi ah ama cunto jelly ah oo kalori-qani ah, iyo dhaqdhaqaaqa ku saabsan dariiqa NACLat-to-VTA waa la duubay oo loo habeeyey habdhaqanka quudinta. Waxa kale oo uu la socon doonaa isbeddelada waqti ka dib soo-gaadhista dheer ee cuntada hedonistic. Cilmi baaris dheeraad ah ayaa eegi doonta isbeddelada joogitaanka NTS ee unugyada, iyo sida ay joogitaanka xaddiyada kala duwan u saameeyaan shaqada unugyada. Fahamka dariiqyada iyo makaanikada molecular ee ku lug leh quudinta iyo buurnaanta, shaqadani waxay gacan ka geysan kartaa dadaalka mustaqbalka caawinta maareynta buurnaanta.

Lindsay Schwarz, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor Koriinka Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN

Aqoonsiga wareegyada maskaxda ee isku xira neefsiga iyo xaaladda garashada

Neefsashadu si toos ah ayay xoolaha ugu dhacdaa, laakiin waxay kaga duwan tahay hawlaha kale ee lagama maarmaanka u ah - garaaca wadnaha, dheefshiidka, iwm. - xayawaanku waxay si miyir leh u xakameyn karaan neefsashada. Neefsashadu waxay sidoo kale ku xidhan tahay xaalad shucuureed iyo maskaxeed si laba-gees ah: kicinta shucuureed waxay keeni kartaa isbeddel ku yimaada neefsashada, laakiin si miyir leh oo neefsashada oo isbeddelaysa ayaa sidoo kale la muujiyay inay saameynayso xaaladda maskaxda. Baadhitaankeeda, Dr. Schwarz waxay rabta inay aqoonsato neerfayaasha neefsashada ee la xushay ee ay si xushmad leh u hawl galiyaan tilmaamo jireed iyo garasho iyo khariidad gobollada maskaxda ee ay ku xidhmaan. Cilmi-baadhistan ayaa laga yaabaa inay ku caawiso barashada xanuunada neerfaha ee kala duwan ee neefsashada ay saamayso, sida dhimashada degdega ah ee dhallaanka (SIDS), hurdada dhexe ee apnea, iyo xanuunka welwelka.

Schwarz waxa uu hiigsanayaa in uu ka faa'iidaysto horumarka laga gaadhay calaamadaynta neerfaha si uu u daraaseeyo neerfayaashan kuwaas oo, ku yaala qoto dheer ee jirridda maskaxda, dhaqan ahaan ay adkeyd in la karantiilo oo la duubo vivo. Laakiin marka la calaamadiyo dhaqdhaqaaqa, Schwarz waxa uu aqoonsan karaa neurons-ka firfircoonida inta lagu jiro gudaha iyo neefsiga firfircoon. Midda dambe, maadooyinka waxay shuruud u yihiin kicinta walaaca leh taasoo u keenta inay barafoobaan oo beddelaan neefsashadooda. Cilmi baadhayaashu waxay markaa baadhi karaan neurons-yada la sudhay si ay u gartaan kuwa firfircoon maaddooyinka shuruudaysan, oo ay wax ka qabtaan bal in kuwani la socdaan neerfayaasha firfircoon ee firfircoonida xilliga neefsiga.

Hadafka labaad waa in la aqoonsado aqoonsiga molecular ee neerfayaasha neefsashada ee la hawlgeliyay intii lagu jiray qaboojinta si si sax ah loo fahmo unugyada qayb ka ah wareegga neefsashada. Ugu dambeyntii, markii uu aqoonsaday neuron-yadaas, Schwarz wuxuu isticmaali doonaa hababka fayruuska ee fayraska ee ay sameeyeen cilmi-baarayaal kale si ay u go'aamiyaan qaybaha maskaxda ee unugyada firfircooni ay ku xiran yihiin. Aqoonsiga xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya dawladaha maskaxda iyo neefsashada, isku-xidhka wareegyada neefsashada miyir-qabka iyo miyir-qabka ah, iyo xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya neefsashada iyo cudurrada qaarkood ayaa laga yaabaa inay aasaas u noqdaan daaweynta wanaagsan iyo sidoo kale faham buuxa oo ku saabsan sida hawlaheenna asaasiga ah loo xirxiray.


Rui Chang, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Waaxaha Neuroscience iyo Cilmiga jirka iyo unugyada jirka, Yale University School of Medicine

Sreeganga Chandra, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Waaxyada Neurology iyo Neuroscience, Yale School School of Medicine

Laga soo bilaabo mindhicirka illaa maskaxda: Fahmitaanka faafinta cudurka Parkinson

Cudurka Parkinson waa cudur si ballaaran loo yaqaan laakiin weli qarsoodi ah neerfaha neerfaha oo si ba'an u saameeya tayada nolosha. Sida saxda ah ee cudurku kubilaabmo lama oga, laakiin cilmi baaris dhowaan la sameeyay ayaa muujineysa in ugu yaraan kiisaska qaar ee cudurka Parkinson ay ka soo baxaan mindhicirka oo ay ku faafaan maskaxda iyadoo loo marayo dareemaha xubinta taranka, dareen dheer oo isku dhafan oo dhinacyo badan leh kuna xiraya xubno badan maskaxda.

Dr. Chang iyo Dr. Chandra waxay u qaadanayaan aragtidan faafinta mindhicirka illaa maskaxda heerka ku xiga cilmi baaristooda. Labadooda ujeedadood ee ugu horeysa waxay raadinayaan inay si sax ah u aqoonsadaan tirada dadka vagal neuron ee gudbiya cudurka Parkinson iyo habka ay u shaqeeyaan xiidmaha iyo neerfayaashaan. Tijaabadu waxay isticmaashaa qaab jiir, irbado borotiino ah oo soo jiidan kara cudurka Parkinson, iyo hanaan sheeko cusub oo lagu calaamadiyo laguna xulo noocyada gaarka ah ee neerfaha. Iyadoo loo marayo tijaabooyin ay kujiraan neerfayaasha qaarkood, borotiinka la soo saaray, iyo jiirka loo baaray cudurka Parkinson, ayaa kooxda ku soo koobaysa musharixiinta gaarka ah. Ujeeddada saddexaad, kooxdu waxay rajeyneysaa in ay soo bandhigaan habka cudurka loogu qaado heerka meerkulka ee dareemayaasha.

Cilmi-baaristu waa wada shaqeyn, dadaal isku-dhafan oo lagu muujinayo khibradda Dr. Chang ee baaritaanka dareemaha vagal iyo nidaamka soo-galista iyo khibradda Dr. Chandra ee cudurka Parkinson iyo cuduradiisa. Waxaa la rajeynayaa in faham wanaagsan oo sax ah oo ku saabsan sida cudurku u gaaro maskaxda, bartilmaameedyada cusub ee ka fog maskaxda loo aqoonsan karo daaweyn taas ka sii saxsan, taasoo u oggolaaneysa daaweynta inay dib u dhigto ama yareyso bilowga cudurka Parkinson iyadoo aan waxyeello loo geysan maskaxda ama saameynaya shaqooyinka kale ee badan ee muhiimka ah ee dareemayaasha foosha ee aan caadiga ahayn ama nidaamka qalliinka.

Rainbo Hultman, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Waaxda Fiyoolojiga Molecular iyo Biophysics, Machadka Iowa Neuroscience - Carver College of Medicine, Jaamacadda Iowa

Isku xirnaanta korantada maskaxda ee dhanjafka: Ku aaddan horumarinta daaweynta ku-xirnaanta shabakadda

Dhanjafku waa faafis, inta badan cillad-daciifisa. Waa mid adag oo caan ku ah daaweynta; dadka qaba waxay leeyihiin calaamado kala geddisan, oo badanaa kiciya xasaasiyadda dareenka, oo ay ka mid noqon karaan xanuun, lallabbo, aragga oo daciifa, iyo saameyn kale. Dhanjafku wuxuu saameeyaa qaybo badan oo maskaxda ka mid ah, laakiin had iyo jeer isku si uma wada aha, daaweynta badanaana saameyn isku mid ah kuma yeelanayso qof ilaa qof. Daraasada Dr. Hultman waxay soo jeedineysaa in lagu baaro xanuunka dhanjafka iyadoo la adeegsanayo aalado cusub iyadoo looga dan leeyahay in lagu iftiimiyo waddooyinka cusub ee daaweynta.

Cilmi-baaristu waxay ku dhiseysaa kooxdeeda daah-furkeeda arrimo door ah, cabbiraadaha qaababka waxqabadka korantada ee maskaxda ku xiran xaaladaha maskaxda ee gaarka ah. Iyadoo la adeegsanaayo qalab lagu beero si loo cabiro waxqabadka maskaxda ee moodellada jiirka ee matalaya madax xanuunka dhanjafka daran iyo kuwa dabadheeraad ah, kooxdeeda ayaa indha indheyn doonta qeybaha maskaxda jiirku shaqeynayo iyo sida ay u kala horreeyaan miisaanka halbeega markii ugu horeysay Barashada mashiinka ayaa gacan ka geysan doonta abaabulka xogta la soo ururiyey, iyo khariidadaha elektrooniga ah ee la abuuray ayaa loo isticmaali karaa in lagu caawiyo in lagu garto qaybaha maskaxda ee ay waxyeellada soo gaartey, iyo sida elektromikada ay isu beddesho muddo ka dib, gaar ahaan bilowga cudurka daba dheeraada Tijaabadu waxay sidoo kale baareysaa qaababka waxqabadka korantada ee ku xiran jawaab celinta akhlaaqda; tusaale ahaan, astaamaha korantada ee lagu arkay maskaxda maado ee dooneysa in laga fogaado laydh dhalaalaya ayaa laga yaabaa inay bixiyaan hab lagu saadaaliyo jawaabaha aadka u daran ee dhanjafka.

Qeybta labaad ee cilmi baarista Dr. Hultman ayaa markaa adeegsan doonta isla qalab si loo eego sida loo heli karo daweynta iyo kahortaga. Waxyaabaha elektarooniga ah ee maadooyinka lagu daaweeyo daaweyntan ayaa la ururin doonaa lana barbardhigi doonaa kontaroolada si loo aqoonsado qaybaha maskaxda ay saameeyeen iyo qaabkee, ka caawinta muujinta saameynta daaweyn kasta / kahortag kasta, iyo sidoo kale saameynta daawada oo aad u isticmaasha madax xanuun, a waxyeellada guud ee ay la kulmaan dadka qaba xanuunka dhanjafka ee doonaya inay maareeyaan xaaladdooda.

Gregory Scherrer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Waaxda Cilmiga Bayoolajiga iyo Jirka, UNC Neuroscience Center, Jaamacadda North Carolina

Tirinta aasaaska neerfaha ee xanuunka xumaanta: Wareegyada iyo daweynta cusub si loo joojiyo labada cudur ee xanuunka daba dheeraada iyo qabatinka opioid

Xanuunku waa sida maskaxdeenu u aragto kicinta waxyeelada leh, laakiin maahan khibrad keliya. Waa noocyo badan, oo ku lug leh gudbinta ka timaadda neerfaha ilaa laf-dhabarka iyo maskaxda, ka shaqeynta calaamadaha, kicinta ficil celinta, ka dibna la socoshada dhaqdhaqaaqa neural ee ku lug leh ficillada si loo dajiyo xanuunka muddada dhow iyo hababka barashada adag ee looga hortagayo mustaqbalka.

Xanuunku sidoo kale wuxuu udub dhexaad u yahay waxa Dr. Scherrer uu u arko inay yihiin laba cudur oo faafa oo isku dhafan: faafida xanuunka joogtada ah, ee saameynaya qaar ka mid ah 116 milyan oo Mareykan ah, iyo cudurka opioid ee ka dhasha isticmaalka xun ee daroogada xoogga leh iyo inta badan balwadaha si loo daaweeyo. Daraasaddiisa, Dr. Scherrer wuxuu raadinayaa inuu si sax ah u ogaado sida maskaxdu ugu xirto xumaanta xanuunka. Daawooyin badan ayaa raadinaya inay saameyn ku yeeshaan dareenkaas xun laakiin badanaa waa kuwa dibedda ka yimaada oo sidoo kale kiciya abaalmarinta iyo wareegga neefsashada, taasoo horseedda qabatinka (iyo kordhinta dheeraadka ah) iyo xirmidda neefsashada ee mas'uulka ka ah dhimashada la xiriirta opioid.

Kooxda Dr. Scherrer waxay abuuri doontaa khariidad maskaxeed oo ballaaran oo ku saabsan wareegyada shucuurta xanuunka iyadoo la adeegsanayo qabashada hiddo-wadaha iyo calaamadeynta dareemayaasha dareemayaasha ee dhaqdhaqaaqa firfircoonida leh calaamadaha dhaadheer. Ta labaad, unugyada maskaxda ee firfircoon ayaa lakala saari doonaa oo koodhadhkooda hidde sida loo kala saari doono, iyadoo laga raadinayo soo dhaweynayaal caadi ah unugyadaas oo bartilmaameed u noqon kara daaweynta. Ugu dambeyntiina, cilmi-baaristu waxay baari doontaa iskudhafyada maktabadaha kiimikada ee loogu talagalay inay la falgalaan mid ka mid ah kuwa la aqoonsaday ee duubayaasha bartilmaameedka ah; saameynta ay iskudhisyadaasi ku leeyihiin raaxo xumada xanuunka; iyo haddii xeryahan ay sidoo kale halis ugu jiraan in si xad dhaaf ah loo isticmaalo ama ay saameyn ku yeeshaan habka neefsashada. Ugu dambeyntii, ujeedku waa in laga caawiyo sidii loo heli lahaa habab wanaagsan oo lagu yareeyo dhammaan noocyada xanuunka iyo in la wanaajiyo fayo-qabka iyo tayada nolosha bukaannada la kulma.

˜اَف صَومالي