Ruka kwenye maudhui



Ishmail Abdus-Saboor, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences and the Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY

Skin-Brain Axis for Rewarding Touch Behaviors

Social touch is a key stimulus that is foundational to human experiences ranging from nurturing others and building social bonds to sexual receptivity. Working with a mouse model and optogenetics, Abdus-Saboor’s previous research has shown that there are direct connections between skin neural cells and the brain, and that dedicated cells are specifically tuned to certain touch cues. These cells are necessary and sufficient to elicit specific physical responses.

In his new research, Abdus-Saboor and his team aim to define how neurons in the skin trigger unique positive signals in the brain, and how the brain receives and processes those signals as rewarding, as well as identifying touch neurons that are required in different touch scenarios (nurturing pups vs. grooming or play). A third aim will seek to identify what sensor on these cells identifies touch. The research will reveal more about the skin-brain connection, with potential applications for researchers studying social disorders.

Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York City, NY

Cortical Circuits for Perceiving Visual Form

In primates, roughly 30% of the cerebral cortex is dedicated to processing visual information. Using new techniques, Dr. El-Shamayleh is working toward developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of how the brain detects and recognizes the objects we see. Focusing on cortical area V4, El-Shamayleh’s research is revealing how various types of neurons in this brain region support our ability to perceive the shape of visual objects.

Cortical area V4 is highly attuned to the shape of objects in the world. Building on these key insights and using novel applications of viral vector-based optogenetics, El-Shamayleh is recording and manipulating the activity of specific groups of V4 neurons with unprecedented precision. This research is identifying how various types of neurons in cortical area V4 interact to process an object’s shape and will unlock details about how primate brains process visual information. The technical innovations established in this research will also facilitate future mechanistic studies of primate brain function and behaviors.

Vikram Gadagkar, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York City, NY

Neural Mechanisms of Courtship and Monogamy

While there has been significant research into how animals learn and perform behaviors, less attention has been paid to how one animal evaluates the performance of another during social interactions. In songbirds, most research has looked at what happens in the brains of males performing a song to attract a mate, but not what occurs in the female bird’s brain as she listens to male song.

Dr. Gadagkar’s work will look at a part of the brain called HVC, a sensorimotor nucleus known to be active in males to keep time as they learn and perform their song. For the first time, he and his lab are recording what happens in female HVC as she listens and evaluates male song. Second, Dr. Gadagkar will examine how females make their evaluation, and what neurons do when errors are detected. Finally, the research will look at the dopamine system to see how the brain shows a preference for the most attractive performance.

Hidehiko Inagaki, Ph.D., Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL

Synaptic Mechanisms and Network Dynamics Underlying Motor Learning

Learning a new skill requires the brain to make changes to its circuitry, a process known as plasticity. While significant research has been done to identify how brain networks execute the skill, less is understood about the mechanics of learning new skills. Dr. Inagaki and his team are working to zero in on the cells and processes involved during the process of learning.

Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and large-scale electrophysiology in a mouse model, Dr. Inagaki and his team can now watch at the cellular level what changes are happening as a new skill is learned – in this case, learning a new timing for the action. Using genetic manipulation to enable the researchers to activate or inhibit proteins associated with plasticity, they aim to uncover not just what changes in the brain, but how those changes are initiated and consolidated. Understanding more about how learning works could have implications for research into learning impairments.

Peri Kurshan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Unravelling The Mechanisms of Synapse Development, From Molecules to Behavior

Synapses, the places where signals are sent and received between neurons, are the key to the function of neural circuits that underlie behavior. Understanding how synapses develop at the molecular level and how synaptic development influences behavior is the aim of Dr. Kurshan’s research. The dominant model holds that a class of proteins called synaptic cell-adhesion molecules (sCAMs) initiate the process, with a family of sCAMs called neurexins especially indicated. But in vivo research shows that knocking out neurexins does not eliminate synapses.

Dr Kurshan’s work indicates that presynaptic cytosolic scaffold proteins may self-associate with the cell membrane, and then subsequently recruit neurexins to stabilize synapses. In her new research, using imaging, proteomics, computational modeling, and transgenic manipulation, she and her lab aim to identify what proteins and cell-membrane components are involved and how they interact. The research has implications for a range of neurological disorders that are tied to synaptic defects.

Scott Linderman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Statistics and Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

Machine Learning Methods for Discovering Structure in Neural and Behavioral Data

Dr. Linderman’s contributions to neuroscience lie in developing machine learning methods that can manage and extract insights from the staggering amounts of data these kinds of research produce, such as high-resolution recordings of large numbers of neurons across the brain and simultaneously observing behaviors of freely behaving animals over long timeframes. Linderman and his team partner with research labs to develop probabilistic machine learning methods to find patterns in all that data.

Linderman’s lab is focused specifically on computational neuroethology and probabilistic modeling – essentially, figuring out how to construct and fit statistical models to the kind of data researchers produce today. His ongoing and future projects demonstrate the breadth of ways machine learning can be applied to neural research. Linderman approaches the work as an integrated partner with experimental collaborators, and by developing methods to solve the problems of neurobiology is also helping advance the fields of statistics and machine learning.

Swetha Murthy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR

Mechanosensation for Guiding Cellular Morphology

Mechanosensation – or the detection of physical force by a cell or a neuron – is a surprisingly subtle and multi-purpose function mediated by certain ion channels (among other proteins) on the cellular membrane. An obvious example is the sense of touch. Dr. Murthy’s lab is digging into a much smaller-scale instance of mechanosensation with profound implications for neural health: The process of myelination, in which specialized cells called oligodendrocytes (OLs) form a sheath around a nerve to improve conduction.

It is hypothesized that mechanical cues (among other factors) can govern OL morphology and myelination, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. Murthy’s lab is studying the mechano-activated ion channel TMEM63A, which is expressed in OLs, to reveal how these channels could mediate myelination and in turn shed light on how mechanical cues guide the process. Understanding how myelination can work – and how it can fail – will be helpful to researchers studying a range of conditions tied to myelination.

Karthik Shekhar, Ph.D., Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering/ Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA

Evolution of Neural Diversity and Patterning in the Visual System

Dr. Shekhar’s lab seeks to understand how diverse neural types and their organization evolved to serve the needs of different animals. His research focuses on the visual system of the brain, specifically the retina and the primary visual cortex, which are remarkably well conserved across species separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution.

Shekhar’s research will examine the evolutionary conservation and divergence of neuronal types in the retina of several vertebrate species, from fish to birds to mammals, and use computational approaches to reconstruct the evolution of neural diversity, including whether evolution led to the rise of new types or modification of existing types. A concurrent effort will investigate the visual cortex and trace the origins of early developmental epochs known as “critical periods”, where neural networks in the brain show exquisite plasticity to sensory experience. A guiding principle underlying Shekhar’s approach is that interdisciplinary collaborations can bring new approaches to tackle big questions in neuroscience.

Tanya Sippy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York City, NY

Modulation of Striatal Cells and Synapses by Dopamine Movement Signals

Dopamine is perhaps the most widely known neuromodulator, largely due to the role it plays in signaling reward. However, dopamine also plays a key role in movement, which is clearly demonstrated by the inability of patients with Parkinson’s Disease, a disorder of dopamine, to initiate movements. Dr. Sippy aims to help learn more about how dopamine is involved in movement, through very precise in vivo measurements of dopamine fluctuations simultaneously with the membrane potential in target neurons.

Membrane potential recordings allow Dr. Sippy’s lab members to measure two properties of neurons that are known to be affected by neuromodulation: 1) the strength of synaptic inputs and 2) the excitability of the neurons that determines how they respond to these inputs. But measuring both dopamine fluctuations and membrane potential in one cell is very hard. Sippy’s work hinges on the discovery that dopamine activity is mirrored in the two hemispheres of the brain, and so measurement of it and membrane potential can be made on opposite sides and still have strongly correlated results. With these recordings made, Sippy will optogenetically manipulate the dopamine system and see how activating or suppressing dopamine affects the properties of target neurons, and how this affects the actions of the animal.

Moriel Zelikowsky, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Neuropeptidergic Cortical Control of Social Isolation

Prolonged social isolation can negatively impact mammalian life, including a steep rise in aggression. While many studies have looked at subcortical control of natural forms of aggression, few have looked at pathological forms of aggression or their top-down control. Dr. Zelikowsky aims to better understand the mechanism and cortical circuits involved in the rise of aggression as a result of chronic social isolation.

Initial research using a mouse model identified a role for the neuropeptide Tachykinin 2 (Tac2) as a subcortical neuromodulator of isolation-induced fear and aggression. Critically, Tac2 was also found to be upregulated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after social isolation. Zelikowsky’s research uses cell-type specific perturbations in mice who have experienced social isolation. Machine learning is used to identify clusters of behavior, which are mapped to imaged brain activity. By understanding how isolation can change the brains of mammals, future researchers may be able to better understand the effects of extended social deprivation in humans.


Christine Constantinople, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, New York University Center for Neural Science, New York City, NY

Neural Circuit Mechanisms of Inference

Dr. Constantinople is working with a rat model to uncover what parts of the brain are involved in inferring things about the world and how neurons come to represent things in the world, and the neurological differences between making a cognitive decision in an uncertain environment or falling back on habitual action. The experiment involves waiting for a known water reward, or “opting out” in hopes that the next reward offered is more worthwhile.

By monitoring brain activity in multiple regions and in specific projections during both predictable and unpredictable periods and the transitions between them, and inactivating specific brain regions and neural pathways in different trials, Dr. Constantine proposes to identify the mechanisms involved in inference. She proposes that different processes are involved when choosing action based on a mental model vs. model-free decisions; that different thalamic nuclei encode the rewards and the rat’s history separately; and that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) integrates these two overlapping but distinct inputs to infer unknown states.

Bradley Dickerson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

Proportional-Integral Feedback in a Biological ‘Gyroscope’

The nervous system collects and acts on incoming information within milliseconds – sometimes with hard-wired reflexes, sometimes with intention. Dr. Dickerson proposes to resolve the level of control fruit flies have over certain wing muscle assemblies through an experiment that studies specialized mechanosensory organs unique to flies known as halteres, which act as a sort of automatic gyroscope.

Dr. Dickerson proposes that the haltere has separate control mechanisms that can be recruited during perturbations to offer the fly maximum control. In controls engineering lingo, he believes the haltere can react to both proportional (the size of a perturbation) and integral (how the perturbation changes over time) feedback – a greater sophistication than previously believed. Using an epiflourescent microscope, a two-photon microscope above the fly to monitor brain activity, and a camera below tracking wing motion, he will track what happens in neurons and muscles when the fly is presented with visual stimuli. He hopes to create a model of how brains, neurons, and muscles communicate that can advance our understanding of how movement is controlled.

Markita Landry, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of California – Berkeley, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Berkely, CA

Illuminating Oxytocin Signaling in the Brain with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Nanosensors

Dr. Landry’s work involves the creation of “optical probes” – miniscule carbon nanotubes with a peptide bound to the surface that will fluoresce in near-infrared light when in the presence of oxytocin in the brain. This fluorescence can be detected with high precision on a millisecond timescale, letting researchers see exactly where and when it is present in a brain, and so identify under what conditions oxytocin release might be impaired (and thus treatable) in mood, behavior, and social disorders.

Importantly, these nanotubes can be introduced into brain tissue externally; the fluorescence is not the result of genetic encoding, so it can be used on animals that have not been modified. Because they emit near-infrared light, it is possible that the light can be detected through the cranium, which would enable minimal disturbance to the subjects. With these sensors as a tool, Dr. Landry hopes to help improve diagnosis of neurological disorders and so destigmatize and improve treatment of many such conditions.

Lauren Orefice, Ph.D., Massachusetts General Hospital / Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Development, Function, and Dysfunction of Somatosensory and Viscerosensory Systems in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has traditionally been thought to be caused solely by abnormalities in the brain, but in her research, Dr. Orefice has found that alterations in peripheral sensory neurons contribute to the development of ASD symptoms in mice, including hypersensitivity to touch of the skin and altered social behaviors. Her current research will focus on whether peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) that detect stimuli in the gastrointestinal tract are also abnormal in mouse models for ASD, and understanding how alterations in somatosensory circuit development due to peripheral sensory neuron dysfunction result in changes to connected brain circuits that regulate or modify social behaviors.

Finally, Dr. Orefice will focus on translating her findings from preclinical mouse studies to understanding ASD-associated sensory issues in humans. Dr. Orefice will first test whether approaches that reduce peripheral sensory neuron excitability can improve touch over-reactivity and gastrointestinal problems in mice. She will leverage these findings in mice to better understand human physiology using studies of cultured cells taken from people with ASD.

Kanaka Rajan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY

Multiscale Neural Network Models to Infer Functional Motifs in the Brain

Dr. Rajan is harnessing the power of AI-based models to make better, more predictive representations of the brain. Using recurrent neural network models (RNNs), Dr. Rajan has discovered that placing more constraints on computational models resulted in more consistent findings and smaller, more robust solution spaces. She has since turned to developing multi-scale RNNs where the constraints are neural, behavior, and anatomical data from real experiments, and are simultaneously applied. Her next step will be to create multi-scale RNNs using such data recorded from multiple species well-studied in neuroscience—larval zebrafish, fruit flies, and mice—to create models.

Ultimately, using datasets from different species will allow Dr. Rajan to identify “Functional Motifs” and use them to discover unexpected commonalities and divergences across these systems. These common, discrete ensembles of active neurons that are linked to similar behaviors and states, regardless of species, will help us to infer how brains operate at a fundamental level. With the data available, these models can run many scenarios and identify what changes in structure or neural activity result in different behavioral outcomes.

Weiwei Wang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX

Understanding the Construction and Function of Glycinergic Post-Synaptic Assemblies

The way neurons communicate with each other is remarkably intricate: neurotransmitters are passed from one neuron to the next across synapses, signaling synaptic receptors on the receiving neuron to open and form channels that allow ions to pass through, and so transmitting an electrical signal. However, if the synapses fail to work or fail to form, the impairment of these signals can contribute to neurological disorders. Dr. Wang seeks to broaden our understanding of these synapses, how they form, and how they work – in particular, how they organize synaptic receptors into clusters, and why it matters that the receptors assemble in high concentrations – by studying in detail the glycinergic synapse.

Dr. Wang will use cryo-electron microscopy to precisely identify the molecular structure of each glycinergic synapse sub-type that has not yet been resolved and so identify how each functions; test how the scaffolding that the glycine receptors cluster on is formed from the proteins gephyrin, neuroligin-2, and collybistin; and finally test purified receptors on an artificial membrane, first in isolation, then bound to the scaffold, and then bound to the scaffold in a cluster to see how the function changes.


Lucas Cheadle, PhD, Assistant Professor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 

Uncovering the Molecular Basis of Microglial Function in the Stimulated Brain

In his research, Dr. Cheadle is studying the development of visual neural connections using a mouse model in which some mice are reared in a light-free environment during a crucial stage of development. His previous research shows that microglia essentially “sculpt” the visual system, culling synaptic connections that are less beneficial. As a result, the physical ordering of that part of the neural system is different in mice reared in the dark than those reared in light. In his ongoing work, Dr. Cheadle will seek to identify at the molecular level how microglia are stimulated by external factors (such as light) and the mechanisms by which they then sculpt synapses.

The research offers several novel approaches, including using gene-editing technology to knock out specific microglial genes to define their roles in visual circuit development, as well as creating a transgenic line of mice that tags functionally active microglial cells in the brain, both tactics most often applied to neurons that Dr. Cheadle is adapting to study microglia for the first time.

Josie Clowney, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, MI

A Feminist Framing of Fruitless: Maleness as a Suppression of Female Neural Programs

A great deal of research into the differences between male and female brains has been behavioral, such as the performance of mating rituals, but less is understood about how the genes that drive those rituals are tuned in the brain. Dr. Clowney hypothesizes that the process is one of subtraction. Her studies to date using a fruit fly model suggest that the male brain may result from the removal of neural programs from a “base model” that is much closer to the female brain, rather than the creation of new programs.

Key to the process is a fruit fly transcription factor called “Fruitless,” a protein created only in male fruit fly brains. In her research, Dr. Clowney will conduct experiments using a variety of techniques to observe the gain or loss of sex-associated circuits and behaviors in animals with or without Fruitless.

Shaul Druckmann, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neurobiology and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

How Does the Brain Compute Using Activity Distributed Across Populations and Brain Areas?

After decades of research, we still have a limited understanding of how the brain performs computations across regions. This very fundamental question is at the heart of Dr. Druckmann’s work, which takes advantage of the increasing scope and detail of brain activity recording to explore what happens in the brain between stimulus and response, specifically when the response is delayed and short-term memory is engaged.

Preliminary data show that activity is present and changing across regions and in different neuronal populations in these situations, and Druckmann aims to show that this collective activity is interacting across brain areas and the ways that interactions can “fix” the necessary memories and motion intention, even when a single region or population’s activity might be erroneous. An additional goal of the project is to expand the way researchers work; his project involves intense collaboration with several other researchers, and he hopes to be able to explore both basic science and also pursue clinical applications for his findings.

Laura Lewis, PhD, Assistant Professor, Boston University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston, MA

Imaging Neural and Fluid Dynamics in the Sleeping Brain

Both neural activity and the fluid dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) change during sleep, with varied consequences – sensory systems shift away from awareness of external stimuli and towards memory reactivation, and CSF flows into the brain and clears away toxic proteins that build up during waking hours. Intriguingly, the two processes are closely correlated. In her research, Dr. Lewis will investigate the connection between neural and fluid dynamics during sleep and the connection of each to brain health.

To do so, Dr. Lewis is using innovative methods to observe synchronized, precise neural activity and CSF flow. Her research will explore first how these slow waves are activated in the brain and which neural networks are involved, using auditory stimuli that can enhance slow waves. Second, she will examine the link between these slow waves and CSF flow.

Ashok Litwin-Kumar, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience and Zuckerman Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY

Connectome-Constrained Models of Adaptive Behavior

In his research, Dr. Litwin-Kumar aims to develop a methodology to bring the worlds of the connectome (wiring diagrams of nervous systems) and functional models of behavior together by developing ways to identify relevant structures within a connectome that can constrain the behavioral models – for example, by limiting the models so they only use synaptic connections that physically exist in the connectome, rather than making physically impossible leaps between neurons.

To test and refine this approach, Dr. Litwin-Kumar is first focusing on the connectome of a part of the fruit fly brain. In this part of the brain, sensory inputs are projected to output neurons, which trigger behaviors such as approach or avoidance reactions. The team will seek to efficiently identify structure within the connectome that reflects how information is relayed. Then they will test deep learning models constrained by those connections to see how effectively they predict responses to stimuli, compared to unconstrained models.

David Schneider, PhD, Assistant Professor, New York University, Center for Neural Science, New York, NY

Coordinate Transforms in the Mouse Cortex

Dr. Schneider’s work focuses on how motor control and sensory regions of the brain work together in this way and will work to uncover how the brain learns and forms memories that form the basis of what is expected. In his experiments, Dr. Schneider focuses on a conduit connecting a motor control region to an auditory sensory region. Whenever a movement is made, the two regions communicate in a way that tells the auditory system to disregard sound created by that movement.

These experiments will help identify the role of specific neurons in anticipating sensory responses, how motor control and sensory centers of the brain interact, and how the pathways between the motor and sensory regions change when a new sound becomes “expected.” Further research will block certain pathways in the brain to determine their role in making predictions, and also see how the brain uses visual input to help anticipate self-generated sounds.

Swathi Yadlapalli, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, MI

Cellular Mechanisms Controlling Circadian Rhythms

Circadian clocks drive many of the rhythms of our biological system, such as when we sleep, wake, how we metabolize, and much more. But exactly what is happening within any given cell to create that rhythm is poorly understood. Previous biochemical and genetic research had identified crucial proteins that are transcription factors, either positive or inhibitory, with a role in circadian rhythms. Dr. Yadlapalli has developed innovative methods of performing single-cell, high-resolution visualization of these proteins and how they interact over a 24-hour period in the living cells of fruit flies for the first time. These methods uncovered the role of one of the key inhibitory transcription factors, called PER, which gathers to form foci evenly distributed around the envelope of the cell nucleus, and play a role in altering the nuclear location of clock genes during the cycle.

In a series of experiments, Dr. Yadlapalli will determine the mechanisms involved in this process – how the foci form and where they localize, and how they promote the repression of clock-regulated genes. Understanding more about the working of these fundamental, powerful cellular processes will provide a starting point for research into many sleep and metabolic disorders and neurological diseases.


Steven Flavell, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Elucidating Fundamental Mechanisms of Gut-Brain Signaling in C. elegans

Little is understood about how the gut and brain interact mechanistically. Dr. Flavell’s research will build on discoveries his lab has made studying the C. elegans worm, whose simple and well-defined nervous system can generate relatively complex behaviors that are easily studied in the lab. Dr. Flavell and his team have identified a specific type of enteric neuron (neurons lining the gut) that is only active while C. elegans feed on bacteria. His experiments will identify the bacterial signals that activate the neurons, examine the roles of other neurons in gut-brain signaling, and examine how feedback from the brain influences the detection of gut bacteria. This research could open new lines of inquiry into the human microbiome and how it influences human health and disease, including neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Nuo Li, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Cerebellar Computations during Motor Planning

Dr. Li’s lab has revealed that the anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM, a specific part of the mouse frontal cortex) and the cerebellum are locked in a loop while the mouse is planning an action. Still unknown is exactly what information is being passed back and forth, but it is distinct from the signal that actually drives the muscles. If the connection is disrupted even for an instant during planning, the movement will be made incorrectly.

Dr. Li’s experiments will uncover the role of the cerebellum in motor planning and define the anatomical structures that link it and the ALM. He will map the cerebellar cortex and find out which populations of a special type of cell used in cerebellar computation, called Purkinje cells, are activated by the ALM in motor planning, and what signals they send back and forth while planning. A second aim will explore what kind of computation the cerebellum is engaged in. Through this work, Dr. Li will learn more about these sophisticated, fundamental brain processes.

Lauren O’Connell, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

Neuronal Basis of Parental Engrams in the Infant Brain

Dr. O’Connell’s work will help identify how memories are formed in infancy as part of the bonding process, will trace those memory imprints to identify how they affect future decision-making, and will explore the neurological impact of disrupted bonding. In the frogs O’Connell is studying, receiving food and care leads the tadpole to imprint on the parent, which in turn affects the tadpole’s future choice of mate: it will prefer mates that look like the caregiver.

O’Connell has identified neuronal markers that are enriched in tadpoles that beg for food which are analogous to those implicated in a range of neurological issues related to learning and social behavior in humans. Her research will explore the neuronal architecture involved in infant recognition and bonding with caregivers, as well as brain activity when making mate choices later in life, to see how neuronal activity in each process is related.

Zhaozhou Qiu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

Discovering Molecular Identity and Function of Novel Chloride Channels in the Nervous System

Much research to date has been focused on ion channels conducting positively-charged ions, such as sodium, potassium and calcium. However, the function of ion channels allowing the passing of chloride, the most abundant negatively-charged ion, remains poorly understood. By performing high-throughput genomics screens, Dr. Qiu and his research team have identified two new families of chloride channels, activated by cell volume increase and acidic pH, respectively. His research aims to investigate the neurological function of these new ion channels with a focus on neuron-glia interactions, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Dr. Qiu will extend this approach to other mysterious chloride channels in the brain. His research will provide key insights into how chloride is regulated in the nervous system.

Maria Antonietta Tosches, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Columbia University, New York, NY

The Evolution of Gene Modules and Circuit Motifs for Cortical Inhibition

Modern brains were shaped by a long evolutionary history. Dr. Tosches is conducting research to understand these processes and figure out what fundamental neural systems have been conserved in vertebrate animals separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution.

Dr. Tosches is exploring the evolutionary history of GABAergic neurons. Her previous experiments have found the GABAergic neurons of reptiles and mammals are genetically similar, indicating that these neuron types existed already in vertebrate ancestors; they also share gene modules associated with specific neuronal functions in both types of brains. In Tosches’ new research, she will determine if these same neurons types are found in the simple brain of salamanders. This work will introduce a completely new animal model to circuit neuroscience, adding to our understanding of how the brain works at a fundamental level.

Daniel Wacker, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Accelerating Drug Discovery for Cognitive Disorders through Structural Studies of a Serotonin Receptor

Dr. Wacker proposes a novel approach to drug discovery that focuses in on a specific serotonin receptor known as 5-HT7R (which doesn’t carry the same risks as activating the dopamine system as many drugs do), carefully mapping that receptor’s structure at a molecular scale, and seeking out compounds that will bind to that receptor in a specific way. Dr. Wacker proposes to conduct a structural study of the receptor using X-ray crystallography on purified samples of the receptor. Wacker’s team will then conduct a computerized search of hundreds of millions of compounds, comparing their 3D structure with the 3D model of the receptor for those most likely to “fit.” This computerized process offers the opportunity to essentially pre-screen drugs based on their structure, and speed their development.


Jayeeta Basu, Ph.D.Profesa Msaidizi, Taasisi ya Neuroscience, Shule ya Chuo Kikuu cha New Medicine ya New York, New York, NY

Mfano wa Mfano wa Shughuli za Hippocampal na Uwakilishi wa Nafasi

Dr Basu inalenga kupanga ramani inayohusika kati ya LEC na neurons maalum za hippocampal. Kazi yake itarekodi moja kwa moja ishara zilizopokelewa na dendrites nyembamba za neurons wakati ishara za LEC zinatumwa na au bila ya ishara ya MEC, na kwa nguvu tofauti za ishara. Mfululizo wa pili wa majaribio na panya utajaribu hypothesis kwamba maagizo haya ya LEC yameunga mkono uumbaji wa kumbukumbu za mahali ambapo kujifunza - harufu za harufu zitasababisha tabia kutafuta thawabu katika maeneo tofauti. Watafiti wataona jinsi kuacha au kuacha alama za LEC wakati wa kujifunza au wakati wa kukumbuka huathiri uanzishaji wa seli za mahali kwenye ubongo na tabia ya kujifunza yenyewe. Utafiti huu unaweza kuwa muhimu katika masomo ya baadaye ya ugonjwa wa Alzheimers, PTSD na hali nyingine ambapo kumbukumbu na mazingira "husababisha" hufunguliwa.

Juan Du, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Programu ya Biolojia ya Miundo, Kituo cha Biolojia ya Saratani na Kiini, Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Van Andel, Grand Rapids, MI

Udhibiti wa utaratibu wa receptors thermosensitive katika mfumo wa neva

Dk Du atafanya mradi wa sehemu tatu ili kufungua siri za jinsi habari za joto zinavyopatikana na kusindika na mfumo wa neural. Anatazama mapokezi matatu maalum, ambayo hutambua joto la baridi na baridi nje, moja ambayo hutambua moto uliokithiri nje, na moja ambayo hutambua joto la joto katika ubongo (kwa ajili ya kudhibiti joto la mwili.) Yeye atatambua hali ya utakaso kwa receptors hizi ili zinaweza kutolewa na kutumiwa katika majaribio ya maabara na bado hufanya sawa na receptors katika mwili.

Lengo la pili ni kuona nini miundo ya receptors imeanzishwa na joto na kuelewa jinsi wao kazi. Hii pia itajumuisha maendeleo ya matibabu mapya ambayo yanaweza kumfunga kwenye miundo hii na kuidhibiti. Tatu, wakati miundo inavyoeleweka, majaribio ya kuthibitisha ambayo receptors hubadilishwa kubadili au kuondoa unyeti wa joto utafanyika, kwanza kwenye seli, na kisha katika panya, kuona jinsi mabadiliko ya receptors ya joto yanaathiri tabia.

Mark Harnett, Ph.D.Profesa Msaidizi, Sayansi ya Ubongo na UtambuziTaasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA

Kuharibu Dendritic Compartmentalization kwa Tathmini Mshauri Mmoja wa Neuron Cortical

Dr Harnett anaangalia dendrites katika mfumo wa visu na zana sahihi za umeme na za macho, kupima jinsi ishara zinavyosafiri matawi ya dendrite, na kupima jinsi mabadiliko ya dendrites hubadilisha jinsi neuroni inavyofanya kazi. Vikwazo hivi vinaruhusu Dk. Harnett kupima ikiwa kuzuia ishara kwenye tawi maalum la dendrite hubadilika jinsi mtandao wa neural hujibu kwa baadhi ya vitendo vya kuona. Kujifunza kwamba neuroni moja inajumuisha mtandao wake wa wasindikaji wa ishara ndogo ingebadilisha ufahamu wetu wa jinsi ubongo unavyogundua. Miongoni mwa mambo mengine, hii inaweza kuathiri jinsi akili bandia, ambayo ni mfano wa mitandao ya neural, inakuja katika miaka ijayo.

Weizhe Hong, Ph.D.Profesa Msaidizi, Idara ya Kemia ya Kemikali na Neurobiolojia, Chuo Kikuu cha California, Los Angeles, CA

Njia za Mzunguko wa Neural za Tabia za Mama

Kazi maalum ya kazi ya Dk Hong itakuwa kuchunguza jukumu la kanda ya ubongo iliyohifadhiwa inayoitwa amygdala katika kudhibiti tabia ya uzazi. Wakati panya za kike mara nyingi huhusika katika tabia nyingi za kutunza pup, panya za kiume hazionyeshe tabia ya uzazi mpaka watoto wao wanazaliwa.

Utafiti huo utatambua idadi fulani ya watu wanaotambua tabia ya uzazi. Utafiti huo utafananisha nyaya za neural katika wanaume na wanawake ili kuelewa jinsi shughuli za neural katika neurons hizi zinavyosimamia tabia ya uzazi. Utafiti huu utatoa ufahamu muhimu katika msingi wa neural wa tabia muhimu ya kijamii na kanuni za msingi zinazoongoza tabia za kijinsia.

Rachel Roberts-Galbraith, Ph.D.Profesa Msaidizi, Idara ya Biolojia ya Cellular, Chuo Kikuu cha Georgia, Athens, GA

Urejesho wa Mfumo wa neva wa kati katika wapangaji

Kwa kusoma upya ustadi wa neural katika ulimwengu wa asili, Dk Roberts-Galbraith anatarajia kujifunza maelezo juu ya utaratibu wa kuzaliwa upya wa neural na jukumu la seli tofauti. Lengo moja ni kuchunguza kama neurons inaweza kuchunguza kuumia na kujitengeneza kujitengeneza yenyewe kwa kutuma ishara zinazosababisha na kurudia regrowth. Dr Roberts-Galbraith huthibitisha kwamba neurons ushawishi wa seli za vipimo vya shina, ambazo huajiriwa kurejesha sehemu za mfumo mkuu wa neva (na sehemu nyingine za mwili). Udhibiti mzuri wa seli za shina ni muhimu kwa kuzaliwa upya, kama wapangaji wanapaswa kuchukua nafasi ya kutosha tishu zilizopo na kamwe kuendeleza tumors.

Lengo jingine ni kuchunguza jukumu la seli za glial, ambayo kwa kawaida imeonekana kama gundi ya mfumo wa neva lakini ambayo ina wazi kuwa na majukumu muhimu zaidi kuliko hapo awali yaliyotambuliwa. Seli za glial hufanya sehemu kubwa ya mifumo ya neva ya wanyama na inapaswa kurejeshwa pamoja na neurons; wao pia huweza kutengeneza upya upya wa neuronal. Tumaini ni utafiti huu utatoa ufahamu zaidi juu ya jinsi urejesho unaweza kutokea katika matukio mafanikio zaidi, na labda kuwajulisha njia mpya za kufikiri kuhusu kuzaliwa upya kwa neural kwa wanadamu.

Shigeki Watanabe, Ph.D.Profesa Msaidizi wa Biolojia ya Kiini na Neuroscience, Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD

Ufafanuzi wa Mfumo wa Ukarabati wa Mambamba kwa Synapses

Dr Watanabe atatumia mbinu inayoitwa flash-na-kufungia microscopy electron ili kuchunguza mchakato huu. Neurons zitasukumwa na mwanga - flash - basi mchakato utasimamishwa kwa usahihi na kufungia high-shinikizo kwa wakati sahihi wa muda mfupi microseconds baada ya kusisimua. Synapses iliyohifadhiwa inaweza kisha kuonekana kwa microscope ya elektroni. Kwa kuchukua mfululizo wa picha waliohifadhiwa kwa muda tofauti baada ya kusisimua, Dk. Watanabe ataunda taswira ya hatua kwa hatua ya mchakato na kutambua protini zinazohusika na kile wanachofanya. Sio tu hii itatoa ufahamu bora wa jinsi neurons kazi, ina maana kwa magonjwa yanayohusiana na maambukizi ya neural mbaya, kama vile Ugonjwa wa Alzheimer's.


Eiman Azim, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Maabara ya Matibabu ya Neurobiolojia,

Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia, La Jolla, CA

Mizunguko ya Mpepesi ya Kudhibiti Mzunguko wa Mbele wa Mbinguni

Harakati nyingi za silaha, mikono na vidole vyetu ni msingi kwa ushirikiano wetu wa kila siku na ulimwengu, lakini sayansi inachukua tu kuanzia uso wa kuelewa jinsi maalum ya nyaya za neural kudhibiti usahihi, kasi na uaminifu wa tabia hizi za kuvutia za magari. Maabara ya Dk Azim katika Taasisi ya Salk ni mbele ya uwanja huu, kwa kutumia mbinu mbalimbali za uendeshaji kwa lengo la kusambaza tofauti za Masi, anatomical na kazi za njia za magari wakati mmoja. Kuchukua faida ya maendeleo ya hivi karibuni katika kujifunza mashine, teknolojia ya maono ya kompyuta na vifaa vya maumbile-maumbile, Azim Lab inalenga kuendeleza mbinu zenye usawa, zisizo na upendeleo, za njia za juu za kuunganisha pamoja na upungufu wa neural wa harakati-hasa mwendo wenye ujuzi kama kufikia lengo la kufikia na kufahamu. Matokeo yake yanaweza kufafanua jinsi magonjwa au kuumia husababisha utekelezaji wa kawaida wa harakati, kutengenezea njia ya kuboresha matibabu na matibabu.

Rudy Behnia, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Neuroscience, Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia Chuo Kikuu cha Zuckerman Mind Brain, New York, NY

Utegemezi wa Serikali wa Neuromodulation wa Mzunguko wa Mwelekeo wa Mwendo

Dk. Behnia anajifunza mchakato wa nguvu unaojitokeza kwa maono, kuchunguza jinsi mfumo wa Visual ubongo unaendesha tabia na husaidia wanyama na wanadamu kuishi na kustawi katika mazingira magumu yaliyo na uchochezi wa hisia. Kutumia mfumo wa mtindo wa kuruka matunda, maabara ya Behnia inachunguza jinsi wanyama wanavyojua na kutatua tabia zao kwa mabadiliko ya mazingira kwa njia ya mbinu mbalimbali za kuongezea, ikiwa ni pamoja na katika vivo seti moja ya kikapu-chungu, rekodi mbili za shughuli za photon, dhana za optogenetic na tabia. Mtazamo fulani wa kazi ya Fedha ya Behnia ya McKnight itafadhiliwa kuchunguza jinsi hali za ndani kama vile tahadhari zinavyobadili uelewa wa ubongo kwa uchochezi fulani, utafiti ambao unaweza kutoa mwanga mpya juu ya jukumu la neuromodulators kucheza katika kubadilisha kazi ya nyaya za neural. Utafiti huu pia unaweza kufunua malengo mapya kwa mikakati ya matibabu kwa matatizo kama vile unyogovu na ADHD.

Felice Dunn, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Ophthalmology, Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco

Uanzishwaji na Udhibiti wa Fimbo na Maono ya Dhambi

Utafiti wa Dk. Dunn umekwisha kutafakari jinsi maelezo ya kuona yanavyozingatiwa na kusindika katika mzunguko wa retinal, ujuzi ambao unaweza kufungua njia mpya za kurejesha maono yaliyopotea. Ingawa magonjwa mengi ya retina yanayotokana na kupoteza maono au upofu huanza na kupungua kwa photoreceptors, jinsi ugonjwa unavyoendelea kuathiri neurons postsynaptic bado haijulikani sana. Katika maabara yake, Dunn inajumuisha ablation transgenic kudhibitiwa kwa muda mfupi wa pichareceptors, rekodi za kazi na picha za seli moja, na mbinu za uhariri wa gene ili kuchunguza seli zilizobaki za retina na synapses. Kazi yake itasaidia kutambua jinsi mzunguko uliobaki unabadilika muundo na kazi katika retina inayoenea, na inaweza kusaidia kufunua matibabu yaweza kuzuia au kuzuia kupoteza maono.

John Tuthill, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Physiolojia na Biophysics, Chuo Kikuu cha Washington, Seattle

Udhibiti wa Upendeleo wa Usikilizaji wa Machapisho katika Drosophila

Ufahamu - mwili wa hisia za kibinafsi na msimamo-ni muhimu, kwa udhibiti wa ufanisi wa harakati, lakini bado haujulikani kidogo kuhusu jinsi nyaya za magari za ubongo zilivyounganisha maoni haya ili kuongoza harakati za baadaye. Maabara ya Dk Tuthill anafanya kazi ili kufungua kiini cha kujifunza motor katika ubongo kwa kuchunguza jinsi nzi za matembezi za kutembea kujifunza kuepuka vikwazo na kuelekea mazingira yasiyotabirika, kuchunguza jukumu la maoni ya hisia katika udhibiti wa magari kwa kuendesha shughuli za mmiliki wa optogenetically. Uelewa wa kina wa udhibiti wa maoni ya mmiliki una uwezo wa kubadilisha njia ambayo tunaelewa na kutibu matatizo ya harakati.

Mingshan Xue, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Chuo cha Dawa cha Baylor, Houston, TX

Kazi na Mechanism ya Inost-Specificated Homeostatic Plastic Synaptic Katika Vivo

Kuzunguka mazingira magumu na kubadilisha mataifa ya ndani, ubongo wenye afya unao na usawa wa mara kwa mara kati ya msisimko na uzuiaji (mara nyingi hujulikana kama uwiano wa E / I) unaostahiki sana. Je, ubongo unasimamia usawa huu? Maabara ya Dkt. Xue watafakari swali hili, kuchanganya Masi, maumbile, electrophysiological, optogenetic, imaging, na mbinu za anatomical ili kujua kama plastiki ya homeostatic inasimamia synapses kwa namna maalum ya pembejeo, kwa hivyo kudumisha kiwango cha shughuli za neuronal na mali za majibu ya kazi. Kupata ufahamu wa kina wa jinsi ubongo wa kawaida unavyoshikilia na kupotosha kunaweza kutengenezea njia za kutibu magonjwa ya neva ambayo huharibu usawa wa asili wa ubongo.

Brad Zuchero, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Neurosurgery, Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford, Palo Alto, CA

Mfumo wa Ukuaji wa Mbrani ya Myelin na kufunika

Hasara ya myelini-insulator ya mafuta ya mafuta karibu na axoni ya neuronal-inaweza kusababisha ulemavu mkali na utambuzi kwa wagonjwa wenye ugonjwa wa sclerosis nyingi na magonjwa mengine ya mfumo mkuu wa neva. Kujenga "mfano wa vitabu" wa njia ngumu ambazo zinaongoza mafunzo ya myelin sasa ni lengo la maabara ya utafiti wa Dr. Zuchero katika Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford. Kuchanganya mbinu za ubunifu ikiwa ni pamoja na microscopy super-azimio, genome editing na CRISPR / Cas, na zana riwayelet gene maumbile iliyopangwa katika maabara yake mwenyewe, timu ya Zuchero kuchunguza jinsi na kwa nini myelin kufunika inahitaji disassembly makubwa ya actli oligodendrocyte cytoskelton, mchakato ambayo inaweza yatangaza malengo mapya au njia za matibabu kwa ajili ya kuzaliwa upya wa myelini na kukarabati.


Martha Bagnall, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Neuroscience, Chuo Kikuu cha Washington katika St. Louis Shule ya Matibabu

Mchanganyiko wa busara na wa magari unaozingatia udhibiti wa postural 

Mkao ni muhimu kwa kazi ya kawaida, lakini kidogo hujulikana kuhusu jinsi ubongo unavyofanya njia za ufanisi kuhusu mwelekeo, harakati na mvuto kupitia mstari wa mgongo ili kuweka mwili "upande wa kulia." Lababara ya Daktari Bagnall inatafiti jinsi wanyama wanavyoendelea mkazo kwa kuzingatia juu ya mfumo wa ngozi ya zebrafish, kiumbe cha mfano na kamba ya mgongo unaoonekana sawa na wanyama wa tumbo. Katika maendeleo ya mwanzo, kamba za mgongo wa zebrafish larval ni wazi, na kutoa watafiti ujuzi muhimu kwa watu mbalimbali wa neurons ulioamilishwa wakati wa aina mbalimbali za harakati. Kwa kujifunza zaidi kuhusu jinsi njia hizi tofauti za mapema zinaajiriwa wakati wa tabia za postural-kuruhusu wanyama kurekebisha mabadiliko katika roll na lami - Utafiti wa Bagnall inaweza kufunua uvumbuzi mpya juu ya uhusiano tata neural ambayo inasimamia tabia sawa kwa binadamu. Kazi yake inaweza pia kuwajulisha maendeleo ya vifaa ambavyo vinaweza kuwasaidia watu kurejesha uwiano wao na msimamo wao, na kuboresha maisha ya watu ambao uwiano wao umeharibika kwa kuumia au ugonjwa.

Stephen Brohawn, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Neurobiolojia, Taasisi ya Neuroscience ya Helen Wills, Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley

Mfumo wa hisia za nguvu za kibiolojia

Dr Brohawn anajifunza mfumo wa umeme wa maisha kutoka mtazamo wa Masi na biophysical, kwa lengo la kutafuta jibu kwa swali "Tunasikiaje? "  Uwezo wa mfumo wa neva kwa kutambua nguvu ya mitambo ni moja ya misingi ya kusikia na usawa, lakini sayansi haijafunua mitambo ya protini inayobadilisha nguvu za mitambo kuwa ishara ya umeme. Kutumia mbinu mbalimbali kutoka kwa kioo cha X-ray kwa microscopy ya cryo-electron, maabara ya Brohawn inachukua njia ya "chini juu" ya swali, kukamata snapshots za azimio za atomiki wakati wa kupumzika na chini ya nguvu. Kupata ufahamu wa jinsi kusikia na usawa kufanya kazi kwa ngazi ya kina ya Masi inaweza siku moja kuwa msingi wa matibabu mpya ili kuboresha maisha ya watu ambao wamepata kupoteza kazi au kupoteza kazi.

Mehrdad Jazayeri, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts / McGovern Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Ubongo

Njia za thalamocortical za muda mfupi wa magari

Dk Jazayeri anajifunza jinsi ubongo unavyoendelea kufuatilia wakati kwa kuchunguza mienendo ya neural ambayo inaruhusu sisi kutarajia, kupima, na kuzaliana vipindi wakati. Kutoka mazungumzo, kujifunza muziki, kucheza michezo, muda ni muhimu kwa utambuzi na kazi za magari, lakini kanuni za msingi za kompyuta na njia za neural za muda zinaendelea kutojulikana. Kuchunguza jengo hili la muhimu la jengo, Jazayeri alifundisha nyani kuzalisha vipindi vya muda, kama vile kushika kupigwa kwa muziki-njia anaendelea kuendeleza kama kazi yake ya utafiti inafanya kutambua msingi wa neural wa ushirikiano wa sensorimotor, sehemu muhimu ya uamuzi na mawazo ya uwezekano. Utafiti wake unaweza kuendeleza uelewa wetu wa mabadiliko ya utambuzi ambayo inaruhusu sisi makini, kukabiliana na habari mpya, na kufanya inferences, wakati kutambua malengo makubwa kwa matatizo mbalimbali ya utambuzi.

Katherine Nagel, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Taasisi ya Chuo Kikuu cha New Medicine / Chuo Kikuu cha Neuroscience Chuo Kikuu cha New York

Njia za Neural zinazozingatia mwenendo wa utafutaji wa kisasa katika melanogaster drosophila

Dk. Nagel huchunguza jinsi nzi za matunda zinajumuisha maelezo ya hisia ili kupata njia yao ya chakula - tabia rahisi ambayo inaweza kutoa mwanga mpya juu ya mzunguko wa neural tata ambayo inaruhusu ubongo kugeuza hisia katika vitendo. Kiumbe cha mfano na ubongo rahisi na uwezo mkubwa wa kufanya "maamuzi juu ya mrengo," nzizi za matunda hugeuka pale zinapokutana na pua inayobadilika ya harufu ya kupendeza, na kutafuta chini wakati harufu inapotea. Ili kupata chanzo cha chakula, nzi zinapaswa kuunganisha pembejeo za kisasa, mitambo, na visivyoonekana, na kubadilisha mabadiliko haya katika maamuzi ya mazingira ya maana. Maabara ya Nagel hutumia uchambuzi mdogo wa tabia, electrophysiology, manipulations ya maumbile, na utaratibu wa maarifa ya kugundua jinsi ushirikiano huu unavyofanya kazi katika ngazi moja ya kiini, wakichunguza nuru moja ya mifumo ya uongozi wa kale zaidi ya ubongo. Mmoja wa wachunguzi wakuu katika mpango wa Taifa wa Sayansi unaoitwa "Kufuta Kanuni ya Kikamilifu," Utafanuzi wa Nagel unaweza kuendeleza neuroscience kwa njia mpya, kutoka kwa kufunua zaidi juu ya jinsi ubongo wa binadamu unavyogundua katika nafasi na wakati, ili kuwajulisha maendeleo ya baadaye ya vifupisho robots.

Mathayo Pecot, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard

Kuelezea mantiki ya transcriptional msingi wa mkutano wa mtandao wa neural katika mfumo wa Visual Drosophila 

Ufafanuzi ambao neurons huunganisha uhusiano wa synaptic ni muhimu kwa tabia ya wanyama, lakini jinsi neurons kutambua washirika synaptic sahihi kati ya kushangaza simu ya utata wa mfumo wa neva haijulikani. Ili kutambua kanuni za molekuli zilizo na msingi wa vipimo vya synaptic ya maabara ya Pecot inatafiti kuunganishwa kwa neural katika mfumo wa kuona wa kuruka, ambayo inajumuisha aina za neuroni zinazoweza kupatikana kwa njia ya geneti na mifumo inayojulikana ya kuunganishwa kwa synaptic. Kulingana na utafiti wao, wanapendekeza kuwa washirika sahihi wa synaptic wanaelezea protini ya kawaida ya mdhibiti ambayo inadhibiti maelekezo ya molekuli ambayo hufundisha uunganisho wao wa synaptic. Kuhakikisha kuwa neurons zinazopangwa kuunda uhusiano zinaonyesha mdhibiti mmoja msimamizi anaweza kutoa mkakati rahisi wa kuanzisha uhusiano sahihi wa neural. Kwa ushahidi unaoongezeka wa kutambua kasoro katika kuunganishwa kwa neural kama dereva katika ugonjwa wa neva, uchunguzi wa Dk. Pecot inaweza kuhamasisha mikakati ya matibabu iliyozingatia revering circuits zilizoharibiwa kwa watu walioathirika.

Michael Yartsev, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Bioengineering, Helen Wills Taasisi ya Neuroscience, Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley

Msingi wa neurobiological wa kujifunza kwa sauti ya sauti katika ubongo wa mamalia

Lugha iko kwenye moyo wa maana ya kuwa binadamu. Tuna uwezo wa kujifunza kwa sauti ambayo tunashirikisha na wachache tu aina za mamalia. Dk. Yartsev inakuja uchunguzi wa kwanza wa uchunguzi wa uzalishaji wa sauti katika ubongo wa mamalia, kwa kutumia popo za matunda ya Misri kusaidia kujibu swali la nini ni kuhusu akili zetu ambazo zinatuwezesha kujifunza lugha. Kutumia teknolojia hizi za riwaya kama rekodi ya wireless ya neural, optogenetics, imaging na ramani ya anatomical, Yartsev na timu inatumaini kuchunguza njia za neural zinazowezesha uwezo wa ubongo kupata lugha. Kazi ya Yartsev inaweza pia kutoa maarifa mapya katika ucheleweshaji wa hotuba ya utoto, aphasia, na matatizo mengine ya kupoteza lugha na maendeleo.


Mark Andermann, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Matibabu, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard

Njia ya kuimarisha njaa ya majibu ya mafunzo ya chakula yaliyojifunza katika kamba ya insular

Utafiti wa Dkt. Andermann hutaja njia ambazo ubongo hutambua na kutenda juu ya picha zinazohusiana na chakula, hasa wakati mtu ana njaa. Kazi yake inaendeshwa na haja ya haraka ya kijamii ya kuendeleza matibabu ya kina ya fetma. Watu huzingatia mambo ambayo miili yao inawaambia wanayohitaji. Zaidi ya-tahadhari ya cues chakula, ambayo husababisha kutafuta chakula zaidi kuliko inahitajika, inaweza kuendelea kwa watu wanaosumbuliwa na ugonjwa wa fetma au matatizo ya kula, hata wakati wa satiated. Maabara ya Andermann yalijenga mbinu inayohusisha picha za kalsiamu mbili za kaloni kwa njia ya periscope kuchunguza mamia ya neuroni katika ubongo wa panya, na kupatikana kuwa majibu ya ubongo kwenye picha zinazohusiana na chakula yanajitokeza kulingana na kwamba panya ilikuwa na njaa au iliyojaa. Lebo ya Andermann inashirikiana na daktari wa Dk Brad Lowell wa wataalamu katika mzunguko wa ubongo ambao hudhibiti njaa-kujifunza koroxisi ya siri katika kutafuta njia za kuzuia tamaa za vyakula vibaya katika masomo ya zaidi.

John Cunningham, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Idara ya Takwimu, Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia

Mfumo wa computational wa watu wa neurons katika cortex motor

Dhamira ya msingi ya utafiti wa Dk Cunningham ni kuendeleza ufahamu wa kisayansi wa msingi wa neural wa tabia tata. Kwa mfano, ufahamu bora wa jukumu la ubongo katika kuzalisha harakati za hiari inaweza kusaidia mamilioni ya watu wenye uharibifu wa motor kutokana na ugonjwa na kuumia. Cunningham ni sehemu ya wadogo lakini wa kuongezeka kwa wataalamu wa takwimu wanaotumia mbinu za kujifunza takwimu na mashine kwa utafiti wa neuroscience. Anashirikisha masuala ya hisabati, takwimu, na sayansi ya kompyuta ili kuchunguza ufahamu wenye maana kutoka kwa data nyingi zinazozalishwa katika majaribio. Ana lengo la kuziba pengo kati ya kurekodi data na ufanisi wa kisayansi, kutafuta kutafuta zana za uchambuzi na watafiti wengine wanaweza kuunganisha. Mbinu za uchambuzi za uwezo wa kushughulikia dasasets kubwa zinazozalishwa ni muhimu kwa shamba, hasa kama watafiti wanaandika data ya milele ya kuongezeka kwa utata.

Roozbeh Kiani, MD, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi, Chuo Kikuu cha New York, Kituo cha Sayansi ya Neural

Utaratibu wa uamuzi wa hierarchical ambao hufanya kazi juu ya mizani ya muda tofauti huwahimiza uchaguzi na mabadiliko katika mkakati

Dk. Kiani anauchunguza jinsi mwenendo unaofaa unatokea katika maamuzi. Maamuzi yanaongozwa na habari na mikakati zilizopo zinazohusiana na habari kwa hatua. Kufuatilia matokeo mabaya, vyanzo viwili vya uwezo wa mkakati usio na hitilafu na habari mbaya-lazima zifahamike ili kuboresha utendaji wa baadaye. Utaratibu huu unategemea uingiliano wa maeneo kadhaa ya cortical na subcortical ambayo kwa pamoja yanawakilisha habari za hisia, kupata kumbukumbu zinazofaa, na kupanga na kutekeleza matendo yaliyotakiwa. Utafiti wa Dk. Kiani unazingatia njia za neuronal ambazo zinatekeleza taratibu hizi, hasa jinsi vyanzo vya habari vinavyounganishwa, jinsi habari husika inavyochaguliwa na kuendeshwa kwa urahisi kutoka sehemu moja ya ubongo hadi nyingine, na jinsi mchakato wa kufanya maamuzi unapoinua imani juu ya matokeo yaliyotarajiwa. Utafiti wake unaweza kuwa na matokeo ya muda mrefu kwa ajili ya utafiti wa magonjwa ya neva ambayo huharibu mchakato wa kufanya maamuzi kama vile schizophrenia, ugonjwa wa obsidi-kulazimisha, na Alzheimer's.

Yuki Oka, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Biolojia, Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya California

Mipangilio ya pembeni na ya kati ya Mwili wa Fluid Regulation

Kazi ya Dk Oka inatafuta njia za neural zinazozingatia homeostasis ya maji ya mwili, kazi ya msingi ambayo inasimamia usawa kati ya maji na chumvi katika mwili. Timu yake inalenga kuelewa jinsi ishara za pembeni na za kati zinatawala tabia ya kunywa maji. Kwa lengo hili, timu yake ya utafiti itachanganya physiolojia na zana za uendeshaji wa neural kufafanua circuits maalum za ubongo ambazo zina jukumu muhimu katika kudhibiti kiu. Watafuatilia jinsi shughuli za mzunguko huo zinavyowekwa na ishara za nje za maji. Kazi yake inaweza kuwa na maana muhimu kwa matibabu ya kliniki mpya ya matatizo yanayohusiana na hamu ya kula.

Abigail Mtu, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Physiolojia na Biophysics, Chuo Kikuu cha Colorado Denver

Njia za mzunguko wa marekebisho ya motor cerebellar

Mwendo ni katikati ya tabia zote, lakini vituo vya udhibiti wa magari ya ubongo havielewi vizuri. Kazi ya Dk Mtu inachunguza jinsi ubongo hufanya harakati sahihi. Lab ya mtu inavutiwa hasa na sehemu ya kale ya ubongo inayoitwa cerebellum, akiuliza jinsi ishara zake zinavyo sahihi za maagizo ya motor. Cerebellum imekuwa ya kuvutia sana kwa uchambuzi wa mzunguko kwa sababu safu zake na aina za seli zinaelezewa sana. Hata hivyo, miundo yake ya pato, inayoitwa nuclei ya cerebellar, inakiuka sheria hii na ni tofauti sana na hivyo, inachanganya zaidi. Kutumia aina mbalimbali ya kisaikolojia, optogenetic, anatomical na tabia za mbinu, utafiti wake una lengo la kuondokana na mchanganyiko wa ishara katika nuclei kutafsiri jinsi inavyochangia kwa kudhibiti magari. Mtu anatarajia kuwa utafiti wake unaweza kuwapa waganga ufahamu wa mikakati ya matibabu kwa watu wenye magonjwa ya cerebellar, na inaweza uwezekano wa kuchangia darasa la teknolojia zinazozotumia viungo vya neural kudhibiti viungo vya maumbile.

Wei Wei, Ph.D., Profesa Msaidizi wa Neurobiolojia, Chuo Kikuu cha Chicago

Usindikaji wa dendritic wa mwendo wa kuona kwenye retina

Utafiti wa Dr Wei unatafuta kuelewa njia za neural za kugundua mwendo katika retina. Hatua ya mwanzo ya usindikaji wa macho na ubongo hutokea kwenye retina, mahali ambapo picha za ulimwengu wa kimwili zimebadilika kuwa ishara ya neural katika jicho. Zaidi ya kamera, kazi ya retina kama kompyuta ndogo ambayo huanza kutafakari pembejeo za kuona kwenye mito mingi ya habari kabla ya kuwapeleka vituo vya juu vya ubongo. Kwa makadirio ya sasa kuna zaidi ya 30 circuits ya neural katika retina, kila kompyuta ina kipengele tofauti, kama vile vipengele vya mwendo, rangi na tofauti. Maabara ya Dk Wei anatumia mifumo ya nuru ili kujifunza jinsi retina inavyoelekeza mwongozo wa mwendo wa picha. Kazi yake itafuta sheria za usindikaji wa visu katika kiwango cha subcellular na synaptic, na kutoa ufahamu katika kanuni za jumla za hesabu za neural na ubongo.


Susanne Ahmari, Chuo Kikuu cha Pittsburgh 
Kutambua Mabadiliko ya Mzunguko wa Neural Kwa Msingi wa Maendeleo ya OCD

Marlene Cohen, Chuo Kikuu cha Pittsburgh
Uchunguzi wa Causal na Correlative ya Hypothesis kwamba mifumo ya Neuronal msingi wa tahadhari inahusisha ushirikiano kati ya maeneo ya Cortical 

Daniel Dombeck, Chuo Kikuu cha Northwestern
Dynamics Kazi, Shirika na Plasticiity ya Mahali Kiini Dendritic Spines 

Surya Ganguli, Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Kutoka kwa data ya Neural kwa Uelewa wa Neurobiological kupitia Takwimu za Juu na Dhana

Gaby Maimon, Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Msingi wa Neuronal kwa Uzinduzi wa Ndani wa Ndani

Kay Tye, Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts 
Kuboresha miundo ya Neural Distributed katika Processing Valence Processing


Jessica Cardin, Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Mfumo wa Kanuni za Kinga za Kudumu za Serikali

Robert Froemke, NYU Shule ya Dawa
Neural Circuitry na Plasticity kwa Udhibiti wa Tabia za Kijamii za Mamamia

Ryan Hibbs, UT Kituo cha Matibabu cha Kusini Magharibi
Muundo na Mfumo wa Receptors Neuronal Acetylcholine

Jeremy Kay, Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Mkutano wa Mwelekeo wa Retinal-Uchaguzi Circuitry

Takaki Komiyama, UC San Diego 
Motor Cortex Plasticity katika Motor Learning

Ilana Witten, Chuo Kikuu cha Princeton
Kuboresha Kutafuta Kumbukumbu: Dopamine Neurons na Mzunguko Wao 


Hillel Adesnik, Chuo Kikuu cha California-Berkeley
Optically Probing msingi Neural ya Perception

Mark Churchland, Chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Sehemu ya Neural ya Uzinduzi wa Mwendo wa Uhuru

Elissa Hallem, Chuo Kikuu cha California - Los Angeles
Shirika la Kazi la Mzunguko wa Siri katika C.Elegans

Andrew Huberman, Chuo Kikuu cha California - San Diego
Mzunguko wa Synaptic kwa Mwongozo wa Maelekezo ya Usindikaji

Dayu Lin - Kituo cha Matibabu cha NYU Langone
Mzunguko wa Mzunguko wa Msawazishaji wa Uvunjaji wa Septum Mediated Mediated Mediation

Nicole Rust - Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania
Njia za Neural zinazohusika na Kutambua Vitu na Kupata Malengo


Anne Churchland, Maabara ya Hifadhi ya Cold Spring
Mizunguko ya Neural kwa Kufanya Uamuzi wa Multisensory

Patrick Drew, Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania State
Kufikiria Mishipa ya Mishipa katika Mnyama wa Behaving

David Freedman, Chuo Kikuu cha Chicago
Utaratibu wa Neuronal wa Kutoa Jamii na Kufanya Uamuzi

Mala Murthy, Chuo Kikuu cha Princeton
Mfumo wa Neural Unaozingatia Mawasiliano Acoustic katika Drosophila

Jonathan Pillow, Chuo Kikuu cha Texas huko Austin
Kufafanua Uwakilishi wa Cortical katika kiwango cha Spikes, Currents, na Mazoezi

Vanessa Ruta, Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Shirika la Kazi la Mipango ya Neural ya Msingi ya Mafunzo ya Vitendo 


Adam Carter, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Sahihi ya Sifa katika Circuits za Striatal

Sandeep Robert Datta, MD, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Mfumo wa Neural Unaozingatia Vipengele vyenyekevu vinavyodhibitiwa

Qing Fan, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Mfumo wa Masi ya Kazi ya Mpokeaji wa GABA Metabotropic

Ila Fiete, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Texas, Austin
Ufafanuzi wa Hitilafu ya Cortical kwa Hesabu ya Karibu-Nyoo

Winrich Freiwald, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Kutoka kwa Utambuzi wa uso kwa Utambuzi wa Jamii

Nathaniel Sawtell, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Njia za Utabiri wa Siri katika Circuits za Cerebellar 


Anatol C. Kreitzer, Ph.D., J. J. Gladstone Taasisi
Kazi na Uharibifu wa Circuits Basali Ganglia Katika Vivo

Seok-Yong Lee, Ph.D., Kituo cha Matibabu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Muundo na pharmacology ya sensor sodiamu za voltage channel

Stavros Lomvardas, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California
Njia za molekuli za uchaguzi wa mpokeaji

Maneno-Hai Shi, Ph.D., Kituo cha Saratani ya Memorial Sloan-Kettering
Uzalishaji wa clonal na shirika la interneurons katika neocortex mamalia

Andreas S. Tolias, Ph.D., Chuo cha Dawa cha Baylor
Shirika la kazi la microcolumn ya kamba 


Diana Bautista, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California Berkeley
Mfumo na Mfumo wa Mfumo wa Kugusa Mamalia na Maumivu

James Bisley, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California Los Angeles
Jukumu la Perietal Cortex katika Mwongozo wa Uangalizi na Masoko ya Jicho

Nathaniel Daw, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Kufanya Uamuzi katika Kazi Zenye Uwezo: Kuchanganya Njia za Computational, Behavior, na Neuroscience

Alapakkam Sampath, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Kusini mwa California
Jukumu la Usindikaji Bora Katika Kuweka Kinga ya Kichwa

Tatyana Sharpee, Ph.D., Salk Taasisi ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Uwakilishi wa maonyesho ya Maumbo ya Visual katika Ubongo

Kausik Si, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Stowers ya Utafiti wa Matibabu
Jukumu la Molekuli kama Prion katika Kuendeleza Kumbukumbu 


Jeremy Dasen, Ph.D.Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Utaratibu wa Synaptic Specificity katika Mstari wa Spinal Vertebrate

Wesley Grueber, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Dendritic Field Patterning kwa Cue kuvutia na Repulsive

Greg Horwitz, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Mchango wa Magnocellular kwa Utayarishaji wa Michezo

Coleen Murphy, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Princeton
Tabia ya Masi ya Matengenezo ya Kumbukumbu ya Muda mrefu na Umri

Bence Olveczky, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Shirika la Kazi la Circuits za Neural Chini ya Sensorimotor Learning

Liam Paninski, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Kutumia Mbinu za Takwimu za Juu za Kupunguza Kanuni za Watu

Bijan Pesaran, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Kuamua wapi kuangalia na wapi kufikia 


Stephen A. Baccus, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Circuitry Kazi ya Neural Coding katika Retina

Karl A. Deisseroth, MD, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Upelelezaji wa Optical Multi-Optical Fast wa Maisha ya Neural Circuitry

Gilbert Di Paolo, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Njia ya Riwaya ya Mfumo wa haraka wa Kemia ya Pip2 Metabolism katika Synapse

Adrienne Fairhall, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Mchango wa asili kwa Hesabu ya kupatanisha na Udhibiti wa Udhibiti

Maurice A. Smith, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Mfano wa Computational wa Kuingiliana Utaratibu wa Kubadilika wa Kuelezea Mali ya Mta mfupi wa Mafunzo ya Mjini

Fan Wang, Ph.D., Kituo cha Matibabu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Uchambuzi wa Masi na wa Kikaboni wa Hisia za Kugusa Mamamia

Rachel Wilson, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Msingi wa Biophysical na Masi ya Uingizaji Kati wa Synaptic katika Drosophila 


Thomas Clandinin, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Je, ni Cues Visual Cues Iliyotengwa na Mabadiliko katika Shughuli ya Neuronal?

James DiCarlo, MD, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Utaratibu wa Neuronal Kuzingatia Object Object Understanding Viewing

Florian Engert, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Msingi wa Neuronal wa Tabia ya Kuonekana Yaliyoonekana katika Mnyama wa Zebrafish

Youxing Jiang, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Texas, Kituo cha Matibabu cha Kusini Magharibi
Njia za Masi ya Uchaguzi wa Ion katika Njia za CNG

Tirin Moore, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Utaratibu wa Visuospatial Attention na Kazi ya Kumbukumbu

Maneno ya Hongjun, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins
Njia za Kudhibiti Synaptic Ushirikiano wa Neurons Uliotengenezwa Upya katika Ubongo Wazima

Elke Stein, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Kubadilisha Mwelekeo wa Medion-1 kwa Mchoro kwa Crosstalk Intracellular 


Athanossios Siapas, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya California
Ushirikiano wa Cortico-Hippocampal na Mafunzo ya Kumbukumbu

Nirao Shah, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Uwakilishi wa Wanyanyasaji wa Ngono katika Ubongo

Aravinthan Samuel, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Njia ya Biophysical ya Worm tabia ya neuroscience

Bernardo Sabatini, MD, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Udhibiti wa Synaptic na Mfumo wa Neuromodulatory

Miriam Goodman, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Kuelewa Mashine-Kuona Mashine ya Neurons Touch Receptor

Matteo Carandini, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Jicho la Smith-Kettlewell
Nguvu za Majibu ya Idadi ya Watu katika Cortex ya Visual 


Ricardo Dolmetsch, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Uchambuzi wa Kazi wa Proteome ya Calcium Channel

Loren Frank, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
The Neural Correlates of Learning katika Hippocampal - Cirtical Circuit

Rachelle Gaudet, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Mafunzo ya Miundo ya Utendaji wa Joto la TRP Ion

Z. Josh Huang, Ph.D., Maabara ya Hifadhi ya Cold Spring
Mfumo wa Masi Msingi Chini ya Targeting ya Subcellular ya Synapses ya GABAergic

Kang Shen, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Kuelewa Msimbo wa Masi kwa Utambulisho wa Target katika Mafunzo ya Synapse

David Zenisek, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Uchunguzi wa Wajibu wa Ribbon ya Synaptic katika Exocytosis 


Michael Brainard, Ph.D. Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Njia za tabia na Neural za plastiki katika ndege ya watu wazima

Joshua Gold, Ph.D. Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania Shule ya Dawa
Msingi wa Neural wa Maamuzi ambayo Flexibly Link Sensation na Action

Jacqueline Gottlieb, Ph.D. Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia
Vipande vya Neural vya Maono na Usikilizaji katika Monkey Posterior Parietal Cortex

Zhigang He, Ph.D. Hospitali ya Watoto
Kuchunguza taratibu za Uharibifu wa Axoni Uharibifu katika Mfumo wa neva wa Kudhibiti Watu wazima

Kristin Scott, Ph.D. Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Maonyesho ya Ladha katika Ubongo wa Drosophila 


Aaron DiAntonio, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Uchambuzi wa Maumbile wa Ukuaji wa Synaptic

Marla Feller, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Udhibiti wa Makazi ya Hifadhi ya Makazi kwa Retina Mamlaka ya Retina

Bharathi Jagadeesh, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Plastiki ya Kitu na Maonyesho ya Neurons ya Kichwa katika Cortex ya Primate

Bingwei Lu, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Njia ya Kiumbile kwa Tabia za Viini vya Nishati ya Neural

Philip Sabes, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Njia za Neural na Kanuni za Computational ya Adaptation Visuomotor katika Reaching

W. Martin Usrey, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Davis
Nguvu za Kazi za Pembejeo na Njia za Maoni kwa Maono 


Daniel Feldman, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Msingi wa Synaptic kwa Whisker Ramani Uvutaji wa plastiki katika Kamba ya pipa ya panya

Kelsey Martin, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Los Angeles
Mawasiliano kati ya Synapse na Nucleus Wakati wa plastiki ya muda mrefu ya Synaptic

Daniel Ndogo, Jr., Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Mafunzo ya juu ya uamuzi wa Ion Channel Regulation

John Reynolds, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Njia za Neural za Kipengele cha Mchanganyiko wa Visual

Leslie Vosshall, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Biolojia ya Masi ya Kutambua Ubaya katika Drosophila

Anthony Wagner, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Utaratibu wa Kuundwa kwa Kumbukumbu: Mipango ya Prefrontal kwa Kuandika Kwa Maandishi ya Episodi 


John Assad, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Athari za Kumbukumbu za muda mrefu na za muda mfupi juu ya Kuandika kwa Mwendo wa Visual katika Parietal Cortex

Eduardo Chichilnisky, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Mwelekeo wa Rangi na Mwongozo: Uteanisho wa Pamoja na Aina za Kiini Zilizojulikana katika Retina ya Primate

Frank Gertler, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Wajibu wa protini za udhibiti wa Cytoskeletal katika Pembejeo na Mwongozo wa Axoni

Jeffry Isaacson, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Njia za Synaptic za Circuits za Kati

Richard Krauzlis, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Ushauri wa Moja kwa Jicho Movements na Superior Colliculus

H. Sebastian Seung, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Kumbukumbu na kushikamana katika Mitandao ya Biolojia

Jian Yang, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha Columbia
Utejaji wa Kituo cha Potasiamu na Ufikiaji uliofundishwa na mabadiliko ya Novel Backbone 


Michael Ehlers, MD, Ph.D., Kituo cha Matibabu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Udhibiti wa Masi wa Wakubwa wa NMDA

Jennifer Raymond, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Katika Vivo Physiological Analysis ya Mutations ambayo huathiri Cerebellum-tegemezi kujifunza

Fred Rieke, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Kupata Udhibiti na Kipengele cha Uchaguzi wa seli za Retinal Ganglion

Henk Roelink, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Sonic Hedgehog Signal Transduction katika Ubongo Malformations Iliyotokana na Cyclopamine

Alexander Schier, Ph.D.Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Utaratibu wa Mfano wa Forebrain

Paul Slesinger, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Utambuzi wa Uingiliano wa Masi Uliyoingizwa katika Udhibiti wa Protein wa G wa Potassiamu

Michael Weliky, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rochester
Jukumu la Shughuli ya Neuronal Yanayounganishwa katika Maendeleo ya Cortical Visual


Paul Garrity, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Axon Kuzingatia katika Drosophila Visual System

Jennifer Groh, Ph.D., Chuo cha Dartmouth
Ubadilishaji wa Mipango ya Neural

Phyllis Hanson, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Wajibu wa Chaperones Masi katika Kazi ya Presynaptic

Eduardo Perozo, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Virginia Shule ya Madawa
Mafunzo ya Miundo ya Juu ya K + Channel Pore

Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Kazi za anga za Mkaa wa Macaque Parahippocampal Cortex


Ulrike I. Gaul, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Vipengele vya seli na Masi ya Mwongozo wa Axoni katika Rahisi katika Vivo System

Liqun Luo, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Mfumo wa Masi ya Maendeleo ya Dendrite: Uchunguzi wa GTPases Rac na Cdc42

Mark Mayford, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Kudhibiti Udhibiti wa Maumbile ya Uchoraji wa Synaptic, Kujifunza, na Kumbukumbu

Peter Mombaerts, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Utaratibu wa Mwongozo wa Axoni katika Mfumo wa Maandishi

Samuel L. Pfaff, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Udhibiti wa Masi ya Msaada wa Msaidizi wa Msafara wa Neuroni

David Van Vactor, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Uchambuzi wa Jenusi unaoongoza Mwongozo wa Msaada wa Motor katika Drosophila


Paul W. Glimcher, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha New York
Msingi wa Neurobiological wa Uangalizi wa Uchaguzi

Ali Hemmati-Brivanlou, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Mambo ya Masi ya Neurogenesis ya Mboga

Donald C. Lo, Ph.D., Kituo cha Matibabu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Udhibiti wa Neurotrophin wa plastiki ya Synaptic

Earl K. Miller, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Kazi iliyounganishwa ya Cornex ya Prefrontal

Tito A. Serafini, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Kutengwa na Tabia ya Mazao ya Kupunguza Cone Kuongezeka

Jerry CP Yin, Ph.D., Maabara ya Hifadhi ya Cold Spring
CREB Phosphorylation na Uundaji wa Kumbukumbu ya muda mrefu katika Drosophila


Toshinori Hoshi, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Iowa
Mipangilio ya kupigana kwa njia za Potassium zinazotegemea Voltage

Alex L. Kolodkin, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins
Mfumo wa Masi ya Mwongozo wa Kizazi cha Kukuza Uchumi: Kazi ya Semaphorin Wakati wa Maendeleo ya Neuro

Michael L. Nonet, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Uchambuzi wa Maumbile wa Maendeleo ya Maji ya Neuromuscular Junction

Mani Ramaswami, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Arizona
Uchambuzi wa Maumbile wa Programu za Presynaptic

Michael N. Shadlen, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Ushirikiano wa Sensory na Kumbukumbu ya Kazi

Alcino J. Silva, Ph.D., Maabara ya Hifadhi ya Cold Spring
Mfumo wa Mfumo wa Kusaidia Kuunda Kumbukumbu katika Panya


Rita J. Balice-Gordon, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania
Shughuli zinazotegemea na za kujitegemea chini ya uundaji na utunzaji wa pamoja

Mark K. Bennett, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Udhibiti wa Mitambo ya Vipicile ya Vipicile na Fusion na Protein Phosphorylation

David S. Bredt, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Kazi ya Physiologic ya Oxydi ya Nitric katika Kukuza na Kurekebisha Neurons

David J. Linden, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins
Substrates za seli za Uhifadhi wa Taarifa katika Cerebellum

Richard D. Mooney, Ph.D., Kituo cha Matibabu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Duke
Utaratibu wa Mfumo wa Kujifunza na Kumbukumbu ya Avian Vocal

Charles J. Weitz, MD, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Biolojia ya Masi ya Pacemaker ya Mamalia ya Circadian


Ben Barres, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Maendeleo na Kazi ya Glia

Allison J. Doupe, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Mzunguko wa Neural unaojulikana kwa ajili ya kujifunza kwa sauti katika Maneno ya Maneno

Ehud Y. Isacoff, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Mafunzo ya Masi kwenye K + Channel Phosphorylation katika Neurons ya Kati ya Vertebrate

Susan K. McConnell, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Kutengwa kwa Jenerejia ya Tabaka kutoka kwa Mamia ya Cerebral Cortex

John J. Ngai, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Uchambuzi wa Topografia ya Neurons maalum na Coding ya Habari Zisizofaa

Wade G. Regehr, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Jukumu la Calcium ya Presynaptic katika Uchoraji wa Katikati ya Synapses


Ethan Bier, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Genetics ya Masi ya Neurogenesis

Linda D. Buck, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Jina la Neuronal na Coding ya Habari katika Mammalian System Olfactory

Gian Garriga, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Uingiliano wa Kiini katika Uingizaji wa Axons ya C.elegans HSN

Roderick MacKinnon, MD, Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Uingiliano wa Subunit kwenye Gesi ya Channel ya Potasiamu

Nipam H. Patel, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Carnegie ya Washington
Jukumu la Gooseberry Wakati wa Drosophila Neurogenesis

Gabriele V. Ronnett, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins
Mfumo wa Utoaji wa Ishara ya Kikamilifu

Daniel Y. Ts'o, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Imaging Optical ya Njia za Neuronal za Tabia za Visual


Hollis T. Cline, Ph.D., Chuo kikuu cha chuo kikuu cha Iowa
Udhibiti wa Ukuaji wa Neuronal kwa Neurotransmitter na Protein Kinases

Gilles J. Laurent, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya California
Ugawanyiko wa Neurons za Mitaa katika Mitandao ya Mitambo ya Maambukizi

Ernest G. Peralta, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Harvard
Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signal Njia katika seli za Neuronal

William M. Roberts, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Oregon
Vipimo vya Ion na Calcium Intracellular katika Viini vya Nywele

Thomas L. Schwarz, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Genetics ya VAMP na p65: Mgawanyiko wa Transmitter Release katika Drosophila

Marc T. Tessier-Lavigne, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Utakaso, Cloning, na Tabia ya Chemoattractant inayoongoza Viendelezi vya Kuendeleza Mfumo wa Nervous Central Nervous System


John R. Carlson, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Shirika la Masi ya Mfumo wa Dosophila Olfactory

Michael E. Greenberg, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Ushawishi wa Umeme wa Maonyesho ya Gene katika Neurons

David J. Julius, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Genetics ya Masi ya Kazi ya Receptor ya Serotonin

Robert C. Malenka, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Mfumo unaozingatia Uwezekano wa muda mrefu katika Hippocampus

John D. Sweatt, Ph.D., Chuo cha Dawa cha Baylor
Njia za Masi za LTP katika Mkoa wa CA1 wa Hippocampus ya Panya

Kai Zinn, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya California
Genetics ya Masi ya Mwongozo wa Axoni katika Drosophila Embryo


Utpal Banerjee, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Los Angeles
Neurogenetics ya Maendeleo ya Kiini cha R7 katika Drosophila

Paul Forscher, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Transal Signal katika Interface Neuronal membrane-cytoskeletal

Michael D. Mauk, Ph.D.Chuo Kikuu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Texas
Jukumu la Kinases za Protein katika Uwasilishaji wa Synaptic na Plastiki

Eric J. Nestler, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Tabia ya Masi ya Locus Coeruleus

Barbara E. Ranscht, Ph.D., La Jolla Foundation ya Utafiti wa Saratani
Uchunguzi wa Masi ya Glycoproteini ya Kiini cha Kiini Kikuu na Wajibu Wao katika Kukuza Uchumi wa Mishipa


Michael Bastiani, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Utah
Wkuunganisha Chumvi za Ukuaji Kufanya Uchaguzi Ukiwa na Ugumu

Craig E. Jahr, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Afya na Sayansi ya Oregon
Njia za Masi za Uhamisho wa Synaptic ya Msisimko

Christopher R. Kintner, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Msingi wa Masi ya Uingizaji wa Neural katika Vitunguu vya Amphibian

Jonathan A. Raper, Ph.D.Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania Medical Center
Uhamasishaji wa Molekuli Iliyoingizwa katika Kudhibiti Motility Cone Motility

Lorna W. Shauri, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia University of Waganga na Wafanya upasuaji
Mzunguko wa Receptors Neuronal Acetylcholine

Charles Zuker, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Transal Signal katika Mfumo wa Visual


Aaron P. Fox, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Chicago
Njia za Kalsiamu za Hippocampal: Vifaa vya Biophysical, Pharmacological, na Kazi

F. Rob Jackson, Ph.D., Foundation ya Worcester kwa Biolojia ya Majaribio
Msingi wa Masi ya utaratibu wa muda wa Endogenous

Dennis DM O'Leary, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Mafunzo ya Maendeleo ya Neocortical yaliyoelekezwa kwa tofauti ya Areal

Tim Tully, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Brandeis
Cloning ya Masi ya Drosophila Muda mfupi wa Kumbukumbu Mutant Amnesiac na Utafutaji wa Mutant wa Muda mrefu wa Kumbukumbu

Patricia A. Walicke, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Neurons ya Hippocampal na Fibroblast Factor Ukuaji


Christine E. Holt, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Axonal Pathfinding katika Kiini cha Mimba

Stephen J. Peroutka, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Uingiliano wa Anxiolytic wa Novel na Subtypes ya Kati ya Serotonin Receptor

Randall N. Pittman, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania Shule ya Dawa
Uchunguzi wa kisaikolojia, uhamiaji wa kinga, na video ya Neurite Outgrowth

S. Lawrence Zipursky, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Los Angeles
Njia ya Maumbile ya Masi ya Uunganisho wa Neural


Sarah W. Bottjer, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Kusini mwa California
Njia za Neuronal za Maendeleo ya Sauti

S. Marc Breedlove, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Berkeley
Ushawishi wa Andogenic juu ya Usahihi wa Uhusiano wa Neural

Jane Dodd, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia University of Waganga na Wafanya upasuaji
Njia za Mfumo wa Transduction ya Kichwa katika Neurons Zilizofautiana

Haig S. Keshishian, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Uamuzi na Upungufu wa Neurons Peptidergic Identified katika CNS Embryonic

Paul E. Sawchenko, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Steroid-tegemezi ya plastiki katika ufafanuzi wa Neuropeptide


Ronald L. Davis, Ph.D., Chuo cha Dawa cha Baylor
Mfumo wa kisasa wa AMP ya Kiini na Kumbukumbu katika Drosophila

Scott E. Fraser, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, Irvine
Mafunzo ya kinadharia na majaribio juu ya ushindani wa neva na Synaptic

Michael R. Lerner, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Kumbukumbu na Olfaction

William D. Matthew, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Uchunguzi wa Immunological na Biochemical wa Proteoglycans katika Mfumo wa neva wa CNS Embryonic

Jonathan D. Victor, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Chuo Kikuu cha Cornell
Uchunguzi uliozuia-majibu ya Uchunguzi wa Mtazamo wa Kati katika Afya na Magonjwa


Richard A. Andersen, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Mali Visual-Space ya Neurons nyepesi nyekundu ya posterior Parietal Cortex katika Nyani

Clifford B. Saper, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Washington
Shirika la Cortical Arousal Systems

Richard H. Scheller, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Uchunguzi wa Kazi, Shirika, na Ufafanuzi uliowekwa wa Neno la Neuropeptidi katika Aplysia

Mark Allen Tanouye, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya California
Biolojia ya Masi ya Gesi ya Potasiamu ya Drosophila

George R. Uhl, MD, Ph.D., Massachusetts Mkuu wa Hospitali
Mipango ya Neurotransmitter inayohusiana na Kumbukumbu: Uchanganuzi wa Kliniki ya Matibabu na Udhibiti wa Maonyesho ya Gene maalum


Bradley E. Alger, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Maryland Shule ya Madawa
Unyogovu wa Vikwazo Inaweza Kuchangia kwa Potentiation katika Mafunzo katika kipande cha Hippocampal Kipande

Ralph J. Greenspan, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Princeton
Maumbile na Maambukizi ya Immunological ya Molekuli za Kiini za Kiini na Wajibu Wao katika Maendeleo ya Neuronal katika Mouse

Thomas M. Jessell, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia University of Waganga na Wafanya upasuaji
Wajibu wa Neuropeptides katika Uwasilisho wa Uhalali na Nociception

Bruce H. Wainer, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Chicago
Cortical Cholinergic Innoring katika Afya na Magonjwa

Peter J. Whitehouse, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa cha Chuo Kikuu cha Johns Hopkins
Msingi wa Anatomical / Pathological wa Mapungufu ya Kumbukumbu katika Dementia


David G. Amaral, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Salk ya Mafunzo ya Biolojia
Mafunzo ya Maendeleo na Kuunganishwa kwa Hippocampal

Robert J. Bloch, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Maryland Shule ya Madawa
Macromolecules zinazohusishwa katika Mafunzo ya Synapse

Stanley M. Goldin, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Upatanisho, Utakaso, na Ujiografia wa Immunocytochemical ya Programu za Usafiri za Neuronial Ion za Ubongo wa Mamalia

Stephen G. Lisberger, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Plastiki ya Vestibulo-ocular Reflex

Lee L. Rubin, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Utaratibu wa Udhibiti katika Mafunzo ya Siri-Muscle Synapse


Theodore W. Berger, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Pittsburgh
Miundo ya Ubongo Inayohusika na Amnesia ya Binadamu: Utafiti wa Hippocampal-Subicular-Cingulate Cortical System

Thomas H. Brown, Ph.D., Taasisi ya utafiti wa mji wa matumaini
Uchambuzi wa kiasi cha Synaptic Potentiation katika Neurons ya Hippocampal

Steven J. Burden, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Basal Synaptic Lamina katika Kuendeleza na Kurekebisha Synapses ya Neuromuscular

Corey S. Goodman, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Stanford
Tofauti, Marekebisho, na Kifo cha Cells Single Wakati wa Maendeleo ya Neuronal

William A. Harris, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Diego
Mwongozo wa Axonal na Shughuli ya Impulse katika Maendeleo


Robert P. Elde, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Chuo Kikuu cha Minnesota
Uchunguzi wa Immunohistochemical wa Limbic, Forebrain, na Peptidergic Njia ya Hypothalmic

Yuh-Nung Jan, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Mafunzo juu ya Uwezo Mwezito Kutumia Autonomic Ganglia kama Mfano Systems

Hawa Marder, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Brandeis
Njia za neurotransmitter za seli za umeme zilizopangwa katika mfumo rahisi

James A. Nathanson, MD, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Madawa ya Chuo Kikuu cha Yale
Utaratibu wa kupokeza homoni katika Udhibiti wa Mzunguko wa Dutu la Mkojo na Mzunguko wa Fluid Cerebrospinal

Louis F. Reichardt, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha California, San Francisco
Upelelezi wa Maumbile wa Kazi ya Mishipa katika Utamaduni


Linda M. Hall, Ph.D., Taasisi ya Teknolojia ya Massachusetts
Wajibu wa Synapses ya Cholinergic katika Kujifunza na Kumbukumbu

Charles A. Marotta, MD, Ph.D., Shule ya Matibabu ya Harvard
Udhibiti wa ubongo Tubulin Synthesis Wakati wa Maendeleo

Urs S. Rutishauser, Ph.D., Chuo Kikuu cha Rockefeller
Jukumu la Ushauri wa Kiini-Kiini katika Maendeleo ya Matiti ya Neural

David C. Spray, Ph.D., Albert Einstein Chuo cha Matibabu
Udhibiti wa Neural wa Kulisha katika Navanax