Ku dhaji bogga



Ishmail Abdus-Saboor, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences and the Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY

Skin-Brain Axis for Rewarding Touch Behaviors

Social touch is a key stimulus that is foundational to human experiences ranging from nurturing others and building social bonds to sexual receptivity. Working with a mouse model and optogenetics, Abdus-Saboor’s previous research has shown that there are direct connections between skin neural cells and the brain, and that dedicated cells are specifically tuned to certain touch cues. These cells are necessary and sufficient to elicit specific physical responses.

In his new research, Abdus-Saboor and his team aim to define how neurons in the skin trigger unique positive signals in the brain, and how the brain receives and processes those signals as rewarding, as well as identifying touch neurons that are required in different touch scenarios (nurturing pups vs. grooming or play). A third aim will seek to identify what sensor on these cells identifies touch. The research will reveal more about the skin-brain connection, with potential applications for researchers studying social disorders.

Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York City, NY

Cortical Circuits for Perceiving Visual Form

In primates, roughly 30% of the cerebral cortex is dedicated to processing visual information. Using new techniques, Dr. El-Shamayleh is working toward developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of how the brain detects and recognizes the objects we see. Focusing on cortical area V4, El-Shamayleh’s research is revealing how various types of neurons in this brain region support our ability to perceive the shape of visual objects.

Cortical area V4 is highly attuned to the shape of objects in the world. Building on these key insights and using novel applications of viral vector-based optogenetics, El-Shamayleh is recording and manipulating the activity of specific groups of V4 neurons with unprecedented precision. This research is identifying how various types of neurons in cortical area V4 interact to process an object’s shape and will unlock details about how primate brains process visual information. The technical innovations established in this research will also facilitate future mechanistic studies of primate brain function and behaviors.

Vikram Gadagkar, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York City, NY

Neural Mechanisms of Courtship and Monogamy

While there has been significant research into how animals learn and perform behaviors, less attention has been paid to how one animal evaluates the performance of another during social interactions. In songbirds, most research has looked at what happens in the brains of males performing a song to attract a mate, but not what occurs in the female bird’s brain as she listens to male song.

Dr. Gadagkar’s work will look at a part of the brain called HVC, a sensorimotor nucleus known to be active in males to keep time as they learn and perform their song. For the first time, he and his lab are recording what happens in female HVC as she listens and evaluates male song. Second, Dr. Gadagkar will examine how females make their evaluation, and what neurons do when errors are detected. Finally, the research will look at the dopamine system to see how the brain shows a preference for the most attractive performance.

Hidehiko Inagaki, Ph.D., Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL

Synaptic Mechanisms and Network Dynamics Underlying Motor Learning

Learning a new skill requires the brain to make changes to its circuitry, a process known as plasticity. While significant research has been done to identify how brain networks execute the skill, less is understood about the mechanics of learning new skills. Dr. Inagaki and his team are working to zero in on the cells and processes involved during the process of learning.

Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and large-scale electrophysiology in a mouse model, Dr. Inagaki and his team can now watch at the cellular level what changes are happening as a new skill is learned – in this case, learning a new timing for the action. Using genetic manipulation to enable the researchers to activate or inhibit proteins associated with plasticity, they aim to uncover not just what changes in the brain, but how those changes are initiated and consolidated. Understanding more about how learning works could have implications for research into learning impairments.

Peri Kurshan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Unravelling The Mechanisms of Synapse Development, From Molecules to Behavior

Synapses, the places where signals are sent and received between neurons, are the key to the function of neural circuits that underlie behavior. Understanding how synapses develop at the molecular level and how synaptic development influences behavior is the aim of Dr. Kurshan’s research. The dominant model holds that a class of proteins called synaptic cell-adhesion molecules (sCAMs) initiate the process, with a family of sCAMs called neurexins especially indicated. But in vivo research shows that knocking out neurexins does not eliminate synapses.

Dr Kurshan’s work indicates that presynaptic cytosolic scaffold proteins may self-associate with the cell membrane, and then subsequently recruit neurexins to stabilize synapses. In her new research, using imaging, proteomics, computational modeling, and transgenic manipulation, she and her lab aim to identify what proteins and cell-membrane components are involved and how they interact. The research has implications for a range of neurological disorders that are tied to synaptic defects.

Scott Linderman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Statistics and Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

Machine Learning Methods for Discovering Structure in Neural and Behavioral Data

Dr. Linderman’s contributions to neuroscience lie in developing machine learning methods that can manage and extract insights from the staggering amounts of data these kinds of research produce, such as high-resolution recordings of large numbers of neurons across the brain and simultaneously observing behaviors of freely behaving animals over long timeframes. Linderman and his team partner with research labs to develop probabilistic machine learning methods to find patterns in all that data.

Linderman’s lab is focused specifically on computational neuroethology and probabilistic modeling – essentially, figuring out how to construct and fit statistical models to the kind of data researchers produce today. His ongoing and future projects demonstrate the breadth of ways machine learning can be applied to neural research. Linderman approaches the work as an integrated partner with experimental collaborators, and by developing methods to solve the problems of neurobiology is also helping advance the fields of statistics and machine learning.

Swetha Murthy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR

Mechanosensation for Guiding Cellular Morphology

Mechanosensation – or the detection of physical force by a cell or a neuron – is a surprisingly subtle and multi-purpose function mediated by certain ion channels (among other proteins) on the cellular membrane. An obvious example is the sense of touch. Dr. Murthy’s lab is digging into a much smaller-scale instance of mechanosensation with profound implications for neural health: The process of myelination, in which specialized cells called oligodendrocytes (OLs) form a sheath around a nerve to improve conduction.

It is hypothesized that mechanical cues (among other factors) can govern OL morphology and myelination, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. Murthy’s lab is studying the mechano-activated ion channel TMEM63A, which is expressed in OLs, to reveal how these channels could mediate myelination and in turn shed light on how mechanical cues guide the process. Understanding how myelination can work – and how it can fail – will be helpful to researchers studying a range of conditions tied to myelination.

Karthik Shekhar, Ph.D., Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering/ Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA

Evolution of Neural Diversity and Patterning in the Visual System

Dr. Shekhar’s lab seeks to understand how diverse neural types and their organization evolved to serve the needs of different animals. His research focuses on the visual system of the brain, specifically the retina and the primary visual cortex, which are remarkably well conserved across species separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution.

Shekhar’s research will examine the evolutionary conservation and divergence of neuronal types in the retina of several vertebrate species, from fish to birds to mammals, and use computational approaches to reconstruct the evolution of neural diversity, including whether evolution led to the rise of new types or modification of existing types. A concurrent effort will investigate the visual cortex and trace the origins of early developmental epochs known as “critical periods”, where neural networks in the brain show exquisite plasticity to sensory experience. A guiding principle underlying Shekhar’s approach is that interdisciplinary collaborations can bring new approaches to tackle big questions in neuroscience.

Tanya Sippy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York City, NY

Modulation of Striatal Cells and Synapses by Dopamine Movement Signals

Dopamine is perhaps the most widely known neuromodulator, largely due to the role it plays in signaling reward. However, dopamine also plays a key role in movement, which is clearly demonstrated by the inability of patients with Parkinson’s Disease, a disorder of dopamine, to initiate movements. Dr. Sippy aims to help learn more about how dopamine is involved in movement, through very precise in vivo measurements of dopamine fluctuations simultaneously with the membrane potential in target neurons.

Membrane potential recordings allow Dr. Sippy’s lab members to measure two properties of neurons that are known to be affected by neuromodulation: 1) the strength of synaptic inputs and 2) the excitability of the neurons that determines how they respond to these inputs. But measuring both dopamine fluctuations and membrane potential in one cell is very hard. Sippy’s work hinges on the discovery that dopamine activity is mirrored in the two hemispheres of the brain, and so measurement of it and membrane potential can be made on opposite sides and still have strongly correlated results. With these recordings made, Sippy will optogenetically manipulate the dopamine system and see how activating or suppressing dopamine affects the properties of target neurons, and how this affects the actions of the animal.

Moriel Zelikowsky, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Neuropeptidergic Cortical Control of Social Isolation

Prolonged social isolation can negatively impact mammalian life, including a steep rise in aggression. While many studies have looked at subcortical control of natural forms of aggression, few have looked at pathological forms of aggression or their top-down control. Dr. Zelikowsky aims to better understand the mechanism and cortical circuits involved in the rise of aggression as a result of chronic social isolation.

Initial research using a mouse model identified a role for the neuropeptide Tachykinin 2 (Tac2) as a subcortical neuromodulator of isolation-induced fear and aggression. Critically, Tac2 was also found to be upregulated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after social isolation. Zelikowsky’s research uses cell-type specific perturbations in mice who have experienced social isolation. Machine learning is used to identify clusters of behavior, which are mapped to imaged brain activity. By understanding how isolation can change the brains of mammals, future researchers may be able to better understand the effects of extended social deprivation in humans.


Christine Constantinople, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Xarunta Sayniska Neural ee Jaamacadda New York, Magaalada New York, NY

Farsamaynta Wareegga Neural ee Farshaxanka

Dr. Constantinople waxa uu la shaqaynayaa nooc jiirka ah si uu u ogaado waxa qaybaha maskaxdu ay ku lug leeyihiin in ay wax ka ogaadaan aduunka iyo sida neerfayaasha u yimaadaan in ay matalaan waxyaalaha aduunka, iyo kala duwanaanshaha neerfaha ee u dhexeeya samaynta go'aanka garashada ee deegaan aan la hubin ama dhicis. dib ugu noqoshada ficilka caadiga ah. Tijaabadu waxay ku lug leedahay sugitaanka abaalmarinta biyaha ee la yaqaan, ama "ka bixida" rajada ah in abaalmarinta soo socota ee la bixiyo ay qiimo badan tahay.

Iyadoo la kormeerayo dhaqdhaqaaqa maskaxda ee gobollo badan iyo saadaalo gaar ah inta lagu jiro labadaba la saadaalin karo iyo kuwa aan la saadaalin karin iyo isbeddellada dhexdooda, iyo kicinta gobollada maskaxda ee gaarka ah iyo waddooyinka neerfaha ee tijaabooyin kala duwan, Dr. Constantine ayaa soo jeedinaya in la aqoonsado hababka ku lug leh faragelinta. Waxay soo jeedinaysaa in habab kala duwan ay ku lug leeyihiin marka la dooranayo ficil ku salaysan qaab maskaxeed vs. go'aamo bilaash ah; in nuklei thalamic ee kala duwan ay si gooni gooni ah u qeexayaan abaalgudka iyo taariikhda jiirka; iyo in kortex orbitofrontal (OFC) uu isku daro labadan waxyaalood oo is dulsaaran laakiin kala duwan si loo qiyaaso dawlado aan la garanayn.

Bradley Dickerson, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

Jawaab-celinta Isku-Darka ah ee Isku-Darka ah ee Bayooloji 'Gyroscope'

Nidaamka neerfayaasha wuxuu ururiyaa oo ku dhaqmaa macluumaadka soo socda gudaha millise seconds - mararka qaarkood falcelin adag oo fiilada leh, marna ulajeedo. Dr. Dickerson waxa uu soo jeedinayaa in la xaliyo heerka xakamaynta duqsigu midhaha ay ku leeyihiin qaar ka mid ah ururrada muruqa garabka iyada oo loo marayo tijaabo lagu daraaseeyo xubno farsamo oo khaas ah oo u gaar ah duqsiga loo yaqaan halteres, kaas oo u dhaqma sida nooc ka mid ah gyroscope automatic.

Dr. Dickerson waxa uu soo jeedinayaa in haltere-ku leeyahay habab kontorool oo gaar ah oo la shaqaaleysiin karo inta lagu jiro rafaadka si loo bixiyo xakamaynta ugu badan ee dukhsiga. Xakamaynta injineernimada lingo, wuxuu rumaysan yahay in haltere-ku uu ka falcelin karo labada saami (xajmiga qaska) iyo isku dhafan (sida ay dhibtu isu beddesho waqti ka dib) jawaab celin - casriyeyn ka weyn sidii hore loo rumaysan yahay. Isticmaalka mikroskoob ee epiflourescent, mikroskoob laba sawir oo ka sarreeya duqsiga si uu ula socdo dhaqdhaqaaqa maskaxda, iyo kamarad ka hooseysa la socodka dhaqdhaqaaqa garabka, wuxuu la socon doonaa waxa ku dhaca neerfaha iyo murqaha marka duqsigu la soo bandhigo muuqaalo. Waxa uu rajaynaya in uu abuuro tusaale ah sida maskaxda, neerfayaasha, iyo murqaha ay u wada xidhiidhaan taas oo horumarin karta fahamkayaga sida dhaqdhaqaaqa loo xakameeyo.

Markita Landry, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda California - Berkeley, Waaxda Kiimikada iyo Injineerinka Biomolecular, Berkely, CA

Iftiiminta Oxytocin Calaamadaha Maskaxda oo leh Nanosensors Fluorescent Infrared-Dhow

Shaqada Dr. Landry waxay ku lug leedahay abuurista "baaritaannada indhaha" - miniscule carbon nanotubes oo leh peptide ku xiran dusha sare kaas oo ku qulqulaya iftiinka infrared-ka dhow marka joogitaanka oxytocin ee maskaxda. Iftiinkan waxaa lagu ogaan karaa si sax ah oo aad u sarreeya oo ku saabsan qiyaasta millisecond, u oggolaanaysa cilmi-baarayaashu inay si sax ah u arkaan meesha iyo goorta ay ku jirto maskaxda, si ay u caddeeyaan shuruudaha sii-deynta oxytocin laga yaabo inay daciifto (oo sidaas lagu daweyn karo) niyadda, dhaqanka, iyo bulshada. cillado.

Muhiimad ahaan, nanotubes-kan waxaa lagu soo galin karaa unug maskaxda dibadda; fluorescence ma aha natiijada codeing hidde, sidaas darteed waxa loo isticmaali karaa on xayawaanka aan la beddelin. Sababtoo ah waxay sii daayaan iftiinka infrared-ka dhow, waxaa suurtogal ah in iftiinka lagu ogaan karo crnium, taas oo awood u siinaysa khalkhalka ugu yar ee maadooyinka. Dareemayaashan oo ah qalab ahaan, Dr. Landry wuxuu rajeynayaa inuu gacan ka geysto hagaajinta ogaanshaha cilladaha neerfaha oo sidaas darteed hoos u dhigista iyo hagaajinta daaweynta xaalado badan oo noocaas ah.

Lauren Orefice, Ph.D., Isbitaalka Guud ee Massachusetts / Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard, Boston, MA

Horumarinta, Shaqada, iyo Qallafsanaanta Somatosensory iyo Nidaamyada Viscerosensory ee Cudurka Autism Spectrum

Xanuunka Autism Spectrum (ASD) ayaa caado ahaan loo malaynayay in ay sababto cilladaha aan caadiga ahayn ee maskaxda, laakiin cilmi-baadhisteeda, Dr. maqaarka iyo dhaqamada bulsheed ee isbedelay. Cilmi baaristeeda hadda waxay diiradda saari doontaa in dareemayaasha dareemayaasha dareemayaasha ee ganglia xididka dorsal (DRG) ee lagu ogaado kicinta mareenka caloosha iyo mindhicirka ay sidoo kale yihiin kuwo aan caadi ahayn moodooyinka jiirka ee ASD, iyo fahamka sida isbeddelka horumarinta wareegga somatosensory ay sabab u tahay cillad dareemeyaasha dareemayaasha. isbedel ku yimaada wareegyada maskaxda ee isku xiran ee nidaamiya ama wax ka beddela dabeecadaha bulshada.

Ugu dambayntii, Dr. Dr. Orefice ayaa marka hore tijaabin doona in hababka yareeya dareenka dareenka neerfaha ay hagaajin karaan taabasho xad-dhaaf ah iyo dhibaatooyinka caloosha iyo mindhicirka ee jiirarka. Waxay ka faa'iidaysan doontaa natiijooyinkan jiirarka si ay si fiican u fahmaan physiology bini'aadamka iyadoo la adeegsanayo daraasadaha unugyada dhaqameed ee laga soo qaatay dadka qaba ASD.

Kanaka Rajan, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School; Faculty, Kempner Institute for the Study of Natural and Artificial Intelligence, Harvard University

Moodooyinka Shabakadda Neural-ka ee Multiscale si ay u sheegaan Motifs shaqaynta maskaxda

Dr. Rajan wuxuu ka faa'iidaysanayaa awoodda moodooyinka AI-ku-salaysan si uu u sameeyo si ka sii wanaagsan oo saadaalin kara maskaxda. Isticmaalka moodooyinka shabakada neerfaha ee soo noqnoqda (RNNs), Dr. Rajan waxa uu ogaaday in xannibaadyo badan la saaray moodooyinka xisaabinta ay keentay natiijooyin joogto ah iyo goobo yar oo adag oo xal ah. Waxay tan iyo markaas u jeesatay inay horumariso RNN-yo badan oo kala duwan halkaasoo xannibaaduhu ay yihiin neural, dabeecad, iyo xogta anatomical ee tijaabooyinka dhabta ah, oo isla mar ahaantaana lagu dabaqo. Tallaabada xigta waxay noqon doontaa in ay abuurto RNN-yo miisaan leh iyadoo la adeegsanayo xogtan laga diiwaan geliyey noocyo badan oo si fiican loogu bartay cilmiga neerfaha - zebrafish dirxiga, duqsiga miraha, iyo jiirarka - si loo abuuro moodallo.

Ugu dambeyntii, isticmaalka xog-ururinta noocyada kala duwan waxay u oggolaan doontaa Dr. Rajan inuu aqoonsado "Motifs Functional" oo u isticmaalo si uu u ogaado waxyaabaha lama filaanka ah ee la wadaago iyo kala duwanaanshaha nidaamyadan. Isku-dhafkan caadiga ah, ee kala duwan ee neerfayaasha firfircoon ee ku xiran dabeecadaha iyo dawladaha la midka ah, iyada oo aan loo eegin noocyada, ayaa naga caawin doona inaan ogaanno sida maskaxdu u shaqeyso heer asaasi ah. Xogta la heli karo, moodooyinkani waxay wadi karaan xaalado badan waxayna aqoonsan karaan isbeddellada qaabdhismeedka ama dhaqdhaqaaqa neerfaha ee keena natiijooyinka dabeecadaha kala duwan.

Weiwei Wang, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX

Fahamka Dhismaha iyo Shaqada Glycinergic Post-Synaptic Assemblies

Habka neurons-ku ula xiriiraan midba midka kale waa mid aad u adag: neurotransmitters ayaa laga gudbiyaa hal neuron ilaa kan xiga ee synapses, oo tilmaamaya soo-qabayaasha synaptika ee neuron-ka qaata si ay u furaan oo u sameeyaan kanaalo u oggolaanaya ions inay dhex maraan, oo sidaas u gudbiyaan signalka korantada. Si kastaba ha noqotee, haddii synapsesku ay ku guuldareystaan inay shaqeeyaan ama ay ku guuldareystaan inay sameeyaan, daciifnimada calaamadahani waxay gacan ka geysan karaan xanuunka neerfaha. Dr. Wang wuxuu raadinayaa inuu ballaariyo fahamkayaga synapses-yadan, sida ay u sameeyaan, iyo sida ay u shaqeeyaan - gaar ahaan, sida ay u habeeyaan soo-dhoweynta synaptika ee kooxo, iyo sababta ay muhiim u tahay in soo-dhoweeyayaashu ay isugu soo ururaan heerar sare - iyagoo si faahfaahsan u baranaya glycinergic isku buuqid.

Dr. Wang wuxuu isticmaali doonaa microscopy cryo-electron si uu si sax ah u aqoonsado qaab dhismeedka molecular ee nooc-hoosaadka glycinergic synapse kasta oo aan wali la xalin oo uu aqoonsado sida mid kastaa u shaqeeyo; tijaabi sida qashinka ay kutlada glycine reseptors-ku ay uga samaysan yihiin borotiinada gephyrin, neuroligin-2, iyo collybistin; ugu dambayntiina tijaabi reseptors-ka la nadiifiyey ee xuubka macmalka ah, marka hore gooni-gooni ah, ka dibna ku xidhxidhan shafka, ka dibna ku xidh xidhidhiyaha kutlada ku jira si aad u aragto sida shaqadu isu beddesho.


Lucas Cheadle, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Sheybaarka Hargabka Gu'ga, Cold Harbor Harbor, NY 

Daah-furka Astaamaha Molecular ee Waxqabadka Microglial ee Maskaxda La Kiciyey

Daraasaddiisa, Dr. Cheadle wuxuu baranayaa horumarinta isku xirnaanta neerfaha ee muuqaalka ah iyadoo la adeegsanayo qaab jiir ah oo jiirka qaarkood lagu koriyo jawi aan iftiin lahayn inta lagu jiro marxaladda muhiimka ah ee horumarka. Daraasadiisii hore waxay muujineysaa in microglia asal ahaan ay "xoqdo" nidaamka muuqaalka, oo baabi'ineysa isku xirnaanta synaptic ee aan waxtar badan lahayn. Natiijo ahaan, amar bixinta jirka ee qeybtaas neerfaha waxay ku kala duwan tahay jiirka lagu koriyo mugdiga marka loo eego kuwa iftiinka ku koray. Shaqadiisa socota, Dr. Cheadle wuxuu raadin doonaa inuu cadeeyo heerka molikula sida microglia ay u kiciso arrimo dibadeed (sida nalka) iyo farsamooyinka ay markaa ku sawiraan isugeynta.

Cilmi-baaristu waxay bixisaa dhowr habab oo cusub, oo ay ku jiraan adeegsiga tikniyoolajiyadda hiddo-u-habeynta si loo baabi'iyo hiddo-wadeyaal gaar ah oo loo yaqaan 'microglial genes' si loo qeexo kaalintooda horumarinta wareegga muuqaalka, iyo sidoo kale abuurista khad jiir ah oo jiir ah oo calaamadeeya unugyada firfircoon ee firfircoon ee maskaxda, labadaba xeeladaha badanaa lagu dabaqo neur-mareenada uu Dr. Cheadle la qabsanayo barashada microglia markii ugu horeysay.

Josie Clowney, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda Michigan, Waaxda Molecular, Cellular iyo Development Biology, Ann Arbor, MI

Naqshadeynta Dumarka ee Midho La'aanta: Labnimada oo lagu xakameynayo barnaamijyada neerfaha haweenka

Daraasad fara badan oo ku saabsan farqiga u dhexeeya maskaxda ragga iyo dumarka ayaa dhaqan ahaan, sida waxqabadka caadooyinka isu galmoodka, laakiin wax yar ayaa laga fahmay sida hiddo-wadayaasha dhaqaajinaya cibaadooyinkaas ay maskaxda ugu jiraan. Dr. Clowney wuxuu qiyaasayaa in howshu ay tahay mid laga jaro. Daraasaddeeda ilaa maanta iyadoo adeegsaneysa qaabka duulista miraha waxay soo jeedineysaa in maskaxda labku ay ka dhalan karto ka saarida barnaamijyada neerfaha “qaabka aasaasiga ah” ee aadka ugu dhow maskaxda dumarka, halkii laga abuuri lahaa barnaamijyo cusub.

Furaha geedi socodka waa cunsur transcript cunsur loo yaqaan "Fruitless," borotiin lagu abuuray kaliya maskaxda duqsiga miro labka. Cilmi-baaristeeda, Dr. Clowney waxay sameyn doontaa tijaabooyin iyadoo la adeegsanayo farsamooyin kala duwan si loogu fiirsado faa iidada ama luminta wareegyada iyo dabeecadaha la xiriira galmada ee xayawaanka leh ama aan lahayn Midhaha.

Shaul Druckmann, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor ee Neurobiology iyo cilmu-nafsiga iyo cilmiga dhaqanka, Jaamacadda Stanford, Stanford, CA

Sidee Maskaxda u xisaabtanta iyadoo la adeegsanayo Firfircoonida Dadweynaha iyo Meelaha Maskaxda?

Ka dib tobanaan sano oo cilmi baaris ah, wali waxaan haysanaa faham xaddidan oo ku saabsan sida maskaxdu u sameyso xisaabinta gobollada oo dhan. Su'aashan aasaasiga ah waxay udub dhexaad u tahay shaqada Dr. Druckmann, taas oo ka faa'iideysaneysa baaxadda sii kordheysa iyo faahfaahinta duubista waxqabadka maskaxda si loo baaro waxa ka dhacaya maskaxda inta u dhexeysa kicinta iyo jawaab celinta, gaar ahaan marka jawaabta ay dib u dhacdo iyo xusuusta muddada-gaaban ku hawlan yahay.

Xogta hordhaca ah waxay muujineysaa in wax qabadku uu jiro oo uu isbadalayo dhamaan gobolada iyo dadyoowga neerfaha kaladuwan ee xaaladahan, Druckmann wuxuu ujeedkiisu yahay inuu muujiyo in howlahan wadajirka ah uu dhexgalayo guud ahaan aagagga maskaxda iyo qaababka isdhexgalka uu "u hagaajin karo" xusuusta lagama maarmaanka ah iyo ujeedka dhaqdhaqaaqa, xitaa haddii hal gobol ama waxqabadka dadweynuhu khaldami karo. Ujeedada dheeraadka ah ee mashruucu waa in la ballaariyo habka ay cilmi-baarayaashu u shaqeeyaan; Mashruuciisu wuxuu ku lug leeyahay wadashaqeyn xoog leh dhowr cilmi baarayaal kale, wuxuuna rajeynayaa inuu awood u yeesho inuu sahamin karo sayniska aasaasiga ah iyo sidoo kale inuu raadsado codsiyada bukaan socodka ee natiijadiisa.

Laura Lewis, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda Boston, Waaxda Biomedical Engineering, Boston, MA

Sawirka Nuuralka iyo Dareenka dareeraha ee Maskaxda Hurdada

Dhaqdhaqaaqa neerfaha iyo dareeraha dareeraha dareeraha cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) labaduba waxay isbadalaan inta lagu guda jiro hurdada, cawaaqibyo kaladuwanna leh - nidaamyada dareenka ayaa ka weeciya ka warqabida kicinta dibada iyo dib u howlgelinta xusuusta, CSF-na waxay ku qulqulaysaa maskaxda waxayna tirtiraysaa borotiinada sunta ah ee soo kordha inta lagu jiro saacadaha soo jeedka Si xiiso leh, labada geeddi-socod ayaa si aad ah isugu xidhan. Daraasaddeeda, Dr. Lewis waxay baari doontaa xiriirka ka dhexeeya neerfaha iyo dareeraha dareeraha inta lagu jiro hurdada iyo isku xirka midkasta caafimaadka maskaxda.

Si taas loo sameeyo, Dr. Lewis wuxuu adeegsanayaa habab cusub si uu u ilaaliyo isku-darka, dhaqdhaqaaqa neerfaha saxda ah iyo socodka CSF. Cilmi-baaristeeda ayaa marka hore baari doonta sida mowjadahaan gaabiska ah looga dhex shaqeysiiyo maskaxda iyo shabakadaha neerfaha ee ku lugta leh, iyadoo la adeegsanayo kicinta maqalka ee sare u qaadi karta mowjadaha gaabiska ah. Marka labaad, waxay baari doontaa xiriirka ka dhexeeya hirarkan gaabiska ah iyo socodka CSF.

Ashok Litwin-Kumar, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Waaxda Neuroscience iyo Machadka Zuckerman, Jaamacadda Columbia, New York, NY

Moodooyinka Ku-Xidhan Ku-Xaddidan ee Dabeecadda La-Qabsiga

Daraasaddiisa, Dr. Litwin-Kumar wuxuu ujeedkiisu yahay inuu horumariyo hanaan loo keeno adduunyada isku xirnaanta (jaantusyada jaantusyada ee habdhiska neerfaha) iyo moodellada habdhaqanka ee wadajirka ah iyadoo la horumarinayo habab lagu aqoonsado qaabdhismeedyada ku habboon ee ka mid ah isku xirnaanta xannibaadda moodooyinka habdhaqanka - tusaale ahaan, adoo xaddidaya moodellada si ay u isticmaalaan oo keliya isku xirnaanta 'synaptic' ee jir ahaan ku jira isku xirnaanta, halkii ay ka sameyn lahaayeen boodbood ahaanba aan macquul ahayn oo u dhexeeya neerfaha.

Si loo tijaabiyo loona sifeeyo qaabkan, Dr. Litwin-Kumar wuxuu marka hore diiradda saarayaa isku xirnaanta qayb ka mid ah maskaxda duqsiga maskaxda. Qeybtaan maskaxda ka mid ah, wax-soo-saarka dareenka waxaa lagu saadaalinayaa inay soo saaraan neerfaha, taas oo kicinaysa dabeecadaha sida soo-dhowaanshaha ama ka-hortagga fal-celinta. Kooxda ayaa raadin doonta inay si hufan u aqoonsato qaab dhismeedka isku xirka ka tarjumaya sida loo gudbinayo macluumaadka. Kadib waxay tijaabin doonaan moodooyinka waxbarasho ee qotada dheer oo ay xannibayaan isku xirnaantaas si ay u arkaan sida wax ku oolka ah ee ay u saadaalinayaan jawaabaha kicinta, marka la barbar dhigo moodooyinka aan xaddidnayn.

David Schneider, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda New York, Xarunta Sayniska Cilmiga Neural, New York, NY

Isuduwaha Isbedelada ee Mouse Cortex

Shaqada Dr. Schneider waxay diirada saareysaa sida xakameynta mootada iyo gobolada dareenka ee maskaxda ay u wada shaqeeyaan qaabkan waxayna ka shaqeyn doonaan sidii loo soo bandhigi lahaa sida maskaxdu wax u baraneyso una sameysato xusuus aas aas u ah waxa laga filayo. Tijaabooyinkiisa, Dr. Schneider wuxuu diiradda saarayaa marin biyoodka isku xira gobolka xakamaynta mootada iyo gobolka dareenka maqalka. Markasta oo dhaqdhaqaaq la sameeyo, labada gobol waxay ku wada xiriiraan qaab u sheegaya nidaamka maqalka in la iska indho tiro dhawaaqa dhaqdhaqaaqaas abuuray.

Tijaabooyinkan ayaa gacan ka geysan doona in la garto doorka neerfayaasha gaarka ah ee saadaalinta jawaabaha dareenka, sida kontoroolka mootada iyo xarumaha dareenka ee maskaxdu ay ula falgalaan, iyo sida waddooyinka u dhexeeya mootooyinka iyo gobollada dareenka ay isu beddelaan markii dhawaq cusub uu noqdo “mid la filayo”. Cilmi-baaris dheeri ah ayaa xannibi doonta waddooyinka qaarkood ee maskaxda si loo go'aamiyo doorkooda samaynta saadaalinta, iyo sidoo kale eeg sida maskaxdu u isticmaasho fikradaha muuqaalka ah si ay uga caawiso saadaalinta dhawaaqyada is-soo-saarka ah.

Swathi Yadlapalli, PhD, Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda Caafimaadka ee Jaamacadda Michigan, Waaxda unugyada iyo bayoolojiga horumarka, Ann Arbor, MI

Farsamooyinka Gacanta ee Xakameeya Qawaaniinta Wareegga

Saacadaha wareegga dhiiggu waxay kexeeyaan qaar badan oo ka mid ah laxanka nidaamkeenna nafleyda, sida marka aan seexanno, soo toosno, sida aan dheef-shiid kiimikaadka u sameyno, iyo waxyaabo kale oo badan. Laakiin sida saxda ah waxa ka dhacaya gudaha unug kasta oo la siinayo si loo abuuro qaafiyaddaas si xun baa loo fahmay. Cilmi-baaristii hore ee bayoolaji iyo hidde-wadaha ayaa qeexday borotiinno muhiim ah oo ah arrimo isdaba-marin ah, ha ahaato mid wanaagsan ama ka-hortag ah, oo door ku leh wareegga wareegga. Dr. Yadlapalli wuxuu soo saaray habab casri ah oo lagu sameeyo hal unug, muujinta xallinta sare ee borotiinadan iyo sida ay ula falgalaan muddo 24 saacadood ah unugyada nool ee duqsiga miraha markii ugu horreysay. Hababkani waxay daaha ka rogeen doorka mid ka mid ah waxyaabaha muhiimka ah ee soo gudbinta xannibaadda, oo loo yaqaan PER, oo isu soo uruurisa si ay u sameyso fociyo si siman loogu qaybiyay baqshadda unugyada unugyada, waxayna door ka ciyaareysaa wax ka beddelka goobta nukliyeerka ee hiddo-wadaha saacadaha inta lagu jiro wareegga.

Tijaabooyin isdaba-joog ah, Dr. Yadlapalli wuxuu go'aamin doonaa farsamooyinka ku lug leh geeddi-socodkan - sida fociyuhu u samaysan yahay iyo halka ay ka soo jeedaan, iyo sida ay kor ugu qaadaan cabudhinta hiddo-wadayaasha saacadda nidaamsan. Fahmitaanka wax badan oo ku saabsan ka shaqeynta nidaamyadan aasaasiga ah, ee awood u leh unugyada waxay siin doonaan bar bilow ah cilmi baaris ku saabsan hurdo badan iyo xanuunada dheef-shiid kiimikaadka iyo cudurada neerfaha.


Steven Flavell, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Machadka Piower ee Waxbarista iyo Xusuusta, Machadka Teknolojiyadda Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA

Qaab-dhismeedka Aasaasiga ah ee Qaabka Calaamadaha Gut-Brain Sign in C. elegans

Wax yar ayaa laga fahmay sida mindhicirka iyo maskaxdu si farsamo ahaan ula falgalaan. Baadhitaanka Dr. Flavell wuxuu ku dhismi doonaa daahfurka sheybaarka uu sameeyay barashada The C. xarrago dixirigoodu, kaasoo nidaamkiisa fudud oo si wanaagsan loo qeexay wuxuu dhalin karaa dabeecad aad u adag oo si fudud looga barto sheybaarka. Dr. Flavell iyo kooxdiisu waxay aqoonsadeen nooc gaar ah oo neuron (neurons dahaarka mindhicirka) oo kaliya firfircoon halka C. xarrago quudiyaan bakteeriyada. Tijaabooyinkiisa waxay cadeynayaan calaamadaha bakteeriyada ee dhaqdhaqaaqa neurons-ka, baari doona doorarka neuronsyada kale ee tilmaamida maskaxda, waxayna baari doonaan sida jawaab celinta maskaxda ay u saameyso ogaanshaha bakteeriyada qanjirka. Baadhitaankan ayaa furi kara khadad cusub oo baaritaan ah oo ku saabsan microbiome-ka aadanaha iyo sida uu u saameeyo caafimaadka aadanaha iyo cudur, oo ay ku jiraan cilladaha neerfa iyo maskaxda.

Nuo Li, Ph.D., Caawiye ku takhasusay cilmiga neerfaha, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Xisaabinta Cerebellar inta lagu jiro Qorsheynta Gawaarida

Shaybaarka Dr. Li ayaa shaaca ka qaaday in kiliyaha dambe ee dambe (ALM, qayb gaar ah oo ka mid ah jiirka hore ee kilkilaha) iyo cerebellum ay ku xirnaadaan xarig halka jiirka uu qorsheynayo ficil. Weli lama oga illaa iyo hadda sida saxda ah ee macluumaadka loo gudbiyo iyo gadaal, laakiin way ka duwan tahay astaamaha dhabta ah ee murqaha murjiya. Haddii isku xirku carqaladeeyo xitaa isla markiiba inta lagu gudajiro qorshaha, dhaqdhaqaaqa si khalad ah ayaa loo sameyn doonaa.

Tijaabooyinka Dr. Li waxay daaha ka qaadi doonaan doorka cerebellum ee qorshaynta matoorka waxayna qeexi doonaan qaabdhismeedka jirka ee isku xiraya iyo ALM. Wuxuu khariidayn doonaa kiliyaha 'cerebellar cortex' wuxuuna ogaan doonaa tirada dadka nooc unug gaar ah loo adeegsaday xisaabinta cerebellar, oo loo yaqaan unugyada 'Purkinje', oo ay ku shaqeeyaan ALM xagga qorsheynta gawaarida, iyo waxa calaamadaha ay u diraan ama soo gudbaan inta ay qorsheynayaan. Ujeeddada labaad waxay sahmi doontaa nooca xisaabinta "cerebellum" ay ku hawlan tahay. Shaqadan, Dr. Li wuxuu waxbadan ka baran doonaa qaabdhismeedkaan maskaxda ee aasaasiga ah.

Lauren O'Connell, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Biology, Jaamacadda Stanford, Stanford, CA

Aasaaska Neuronal ee Waxqabadka Waalidka ee Maskaxda Ilmaha

Shaqada Dr. O'Connell waxay gacan ka geysan doontaa in la garto sida xasuusta loogu sameeyo caruurnimada iyaga oo qayb ka ah habka isku xidhka, waxay raadindoontaa fikradaha xusuustaas si loo aqoonsado sida ay u saamaynayaan go'aan gaadhista mustaqbalka, waxayna sahamin doontaa saamaynta neerfayaasha ee carqaladaynta. Burucda O'Connell waxay baraneysaa, helitaanka cuntada iyo daryeelka waxay horseedaysaa tadpole inuu ku sawiro waalidka, taa oo saameyn ku leh doorashada tadpole ee lammaanaha mustaqbalka: waxay doorbideysaa lammaaneyaasha u muuqda kuwa daryeelaha ah.

O'Connell waxay tilmaamtay astaamaha neuronal-ka ee ku hodansan tadpoles kuwaasoo dalbanaya cunno u dhigma kuwa ku lug leh arrimo badan oo neerfaha ah oo la xiriira barashada iyo dhaqanka bulshada ee aadanaha. Daraasaddeeda ayaa sahamin doonta qaab dhismeedka neuronal ee ku lug leh aqoonsiga ilmaha iyo xiriirinta daryeelayaasha, iyo sidoo kale waxqabadka maskaxda marka la sameynayo xulashooyinka lamaanaha goor dambe nolosha, si loo arko sida waxqabadka neuronal ee geeddi-socod kasta uu ula xiriiro.

Zhaozhou Qiu, Ph.D., Caawiye ku takhasusay cilmiga jimicsiga iyo cilmiga neerfaha, Jaamacadda Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD

Soo Baadhista Aqoonsiga Molecular-ka iyo Waxqabadka Shabacadaha Novel Chloride ee Nidaamka Nerror

Baadhis badan oo ilaa maanta ah ayaa diiradda lagu saaray kanaalada ion kana fulinaya ion-yada si fiican loo xukumay, sida soodhiyam, potassium iyo kaalshiyam. Si kastaba ha noqotee, shaqada ee kanaalada ion kanaallo u oggolaanaya gudbinta chloride, oo ah kuwa ugu badan ee si xun u eedeeya, ayaa si liidata loo fahmay. Markii la sameynayay shaashadda unugyada sare ee unugyada jirka, Dr. Qiu iyo kooxdiisa cilmi baarista waxay aqoonsadeen laba qoys oo cusub oo ah kanaalada chloride, oo ay ku dheehan tahay kordhinta mugga unugyada iyo aashitada pH-ga, siday u kala horreeyaan. Daraasaddiisa ayaa looga golleeyahay in lagu baaro shaqada neerfaha ee wadooyinkan cusub ee ion-ka iyada oo diiradda la saarayo is-dhexgalka neuron-glia, caagga synaptik, iyo barashada iyo xusuusta. Dr. Qiu wuxuu ku fidin doonaa qaabkan kanaalada kale ee qarsoon ee maskaxda. Daraasaddiisa ayaa bixin doonta aragtiyo muhiim ah oo ku saabsan sida koloriin loogu habeeyo nidaamka dareemayaasha.

Maria Antonietta Tosches, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda Columbia, New York, NY

Isbeddellada Modulayaasha Gene iyo Moodooyinka wareega ee loogu tala galay Inhibition Cortical Inhibition

Maskaxda casriga ah waxaa qaabeeyey taariikh fog oo horumarineed. Dr. Tosches wuxuu sameynayaa daraasad si uu u fahmo geedi socodyadaan oo uu u ogaado waxa nidaamyada aasaasiga ah ee nabadeed ay ku keydsan tahay xayawaanka iskuxiran ee ay kala joogaan boqolaal milyan oo sano oo horumar ah.

Dr. Tosches wuxuu baarayaa taariikhda horumarineed ee neerfaha GABAergic. Tijaabooyinkeedii hore waxay heleen GABAergic neurons ee xamaaratada iyo xayawaanada ayaa hiddo ahaan la mid ah, taasoo muujineysa in noocyadan neuron-ka ah ay horay u jireen awoowayaasha laf-dhabarka; waxay sidoo kale wadaagaan cutubyo hidde oo la xiriira shaqooyinka neerfaha gaarka ah ee labada nooc ee maskaxda. Daraasadda cusub ee Tosches, waxay go'aamineysaa haddii noocyadan neurons-ka isku mid ah laga helo maskaxda fudud ee mushaaraadka. Shaqadani waxay soo bandhigi doontaa nooc xayawaan ah oo cusub oo loogu talagalay wareegga 'neuroscience', iyada oo lagu dari doono fahamkeena sida maskaxdu u shaqeyso heer aasaasi ah.

Daniel Wacker, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Iskuulka Caafimaadka Icahn ee ku yaal Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Dardargelinta Helitaanka Daawooyinka ee Cilladaha Maskaxda iyada oo loo marayo Daraasadaha Dhismaha ee Receptor-ka Serotonin

Dr. Wacker wuxuu soo jeedinayaa hab cusub oo sheeko ku saabsan daahfurka daroogada kaas oo diiradda saaraya qaabilaad gaar ah oo loo yaqaan 'Serotonin receptor' oo loo yaqaan 5-HT7R (oo aan lahayn halista la mid ah dhaqdhaqaaqa nidaamka dopamine-ka sida dawooyin badani u qabtaan), si taxaddar leh khariidadda qaab-dhismeedka qaab-dhismeedka cabirka molikaligga, iyo raadinta xeryo ku xirmi doona soo-dhoweyntaas qaab gaar ah. Dr. Wacker wuxuu soo jeedinayaa in la sameeyo daraasad qaab dhismeedka soo-dhoweedka iyadoo la adeegsanayo qalabka raajada loo yaqaan 'X-ray crystallography' oo ku saabsan muunadaha la daahiriyey ee soo dhoweynta. Kooxda Wacker waxay markaa samayn doonaan baaris kombiyuutar ah oo ah boqolaal milyan oo xeryood, iyagoo isbarbar dhigaya qaab dhismeedkooda 3D iyo qaabka 3D ee soo dhoweeyaha kuwa ay u badan tahay inay “ku habboonaan karaan." Nidaamkan kumbuyuutareedku wuxuu siinayaa fursad aasaasiyan daawooyinka hore loogu baari karo iyadoo lagu saleynayo qaab dhismeedkooda, iyo in la dardar geliyo horumarkooda.


Jayeeta Basu, Ph.D.Kaaliyaha Professor, Machadka Neuroscience, Jaamacadda New York University of Medicine, New York, NY

Isbeddelka Kala Duwanaanta Kortikal ee Hawlaha Hippocampal iyo Mabaadiida Mabaadiida

Dr. Basu wuxuu ujeedkiisu yahay inuu ku tuso wareegga qaybta ka dhexeysa LEC iyo neurosyada gaar ah. Dhiigkeedu wuxuu si toos ah u qori doonaa calaamadaha ay heleen dendrites khafiif ah ee qanjidhada marka LEC signals lagu diro ama aan lahayn calaamadaha MEC, iyo calaamadaha kala duwan ee signalka. Darajooyin kale oo tijaabo ah oo jiir qaba ayaa tijaabin doona aragtida ah in LEC-yadaasi ay taageerayaan abuurista xusuusta meel marka waxbarashada - calaamaduhu waxay dhalin karaan dabeecad si ay u raadsadaan abaal marino meelo kala duwan. Cilmi baadhayaashu waxay arki doonaan sida loo beddelo ama ka baxo LEC signageada inta lagu jiro barashada ama xilliga xasuus-qorka waxay saameyn ku yeelaneysaa firfircoonaanta unugyada goobta maskaxda iyo habdhaqanka barashada laftiisa. Cilmi-baaristaani waxay noqon kartaa mid ku habboon daraasadaha mustaqbalka ee cudurka Alzheimers, PTSD iyo xaalado kale oo xasuusta iyo macnaha "waxyaallaha" macquul ah.

Juan Du, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Barnaamijka Buuxinta Qaabdhismeedka, Xarunta Kansarka iyo Cilmi Biyoolajiyada, Machadka Cilmi Baarista Van Andel, Grand Rapids, MI

Nidaaminta nidaamyada xasaasiyeyaasha kulul ee nidaamka dareemayaasha

Dr. Du wuxuu qaban doonaa mashruuc saddex-qaybood ah si uu u furo qarsoodiga sida macluumaadka kulaylka loo helayo lana socodsiiyo nidaamka neuralada. Waxay fiirinaysaa seddex siyoodhiyood oo qaas ah, mid ka mid ah kaas oo ogaanaya heerkul qabow iyo qabow ka baxsan dibadda, mid ka mid ah kaas oo ogaanaya kuleyl aad u kulul, iyo mid ka soo baxa heerkulka diirran ee maskaxda (si loo xakameeyo heerkulka jidhka.) Waxay marka hore u aqoonsan doontaa xaaladaha nadiifinta ee kuwa soo dhaweeyaha waa la soo saari karaa waxaana loo isticmaali karaa tijaabooyinka shaybaadhka waxaana wali la shaqeyn karaa kuwa isku midka ah ee jidhka.

Ujeedada labaad waxay tahay in la arko dhismayaasha qaabdhismeedyada la qabadsiiyay waxaa lagu dhaqaajiyaa heerkulka iyo fahamka sida ay u shaqeeyaan. Tani waxay sidoo kale ku jiri doontaa hormarinta daaweyn cusub oo ku xiran dhismooyinkaas iyaga oo xakameynaya. Marka saddexaad, marka dhismayaasha la fahmayo, tijaabinta ansixinta ee soo-dhaweeyayaashu ay isku beddeleen inay isbeddelaan ama ka saaraan xasaasiyadda heerkulka ayaa la qaban doonaa, marka hore ee unugyada, ka dibna jiirarka, si loo arko sida wax u beddelidda aaladaha-xasaasiyadeed heerkulka saameynaya.

Mark Harnett, Ph.D.Kaaliyaha Professor, Sayniska iyo Cognitive SciencesMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Qaabilidda Qaybinta Dendritic-ka ee Qiimaynta Kombiyuutarada Xilliga Kiriimka ah

Dr. Harnett wuxuu eegayaa dendrites nidaam muuqaal leh qalabka korontada iyo qalabka fudud, si loo qiyaaso sida calaamadaha u socdaan laanta dendrite, iyo qiyaasta sida wax u beddelidda dentiashadu isbeddesho sida uu u shaqeeyo neuronka. Hurgumooyinkani waxay u ogolaanayaan Dr. Harnett inuu tijaabiyo haddii calaamadaha la joojiyo ee laanta gaarka ah ee dendrite ay isbedeleyso sida shabakadda neuralada ay uga jawaabto dareemayaasha muuqaalka qaarkood. Barashada in hal neuron ah oo asal ahaan ka kooban yahay shabakad isku mid ah oo ka mid ah processor-yada yaryar ayaa beddeli doona fahamkayaga sida maskaxdu u xisaabtanto. Waxyaabaha kale, tani waxay saameyn kartaa sida sirdoonka caanaha ah, oo loogu talagalay shabakadaha neerfaha, kobcaya sanadaha soo socda.

Weizhe Hong, Ph.D.Kaaliyaha Professor, Waaxyaha Heerka Noolojiga iyo Nuuryjiyada, Jaamacadda California, Los Angeles, CA

Nidaamyada Qalabka Nuuraliya ee Habdhaqanka Matuurnimada

Diirad gaar ah oo ka mid ah shaqada Dr. Hong ayaa baaraya doorka gobolka ee maskaxda lagu xakameeyey ee loo yaqaan 'amygdala' ee xakamaynta dhaqanka waalidnimada. Inkasta oo jiirarka haweenku badanaa ku lug yeeshaan dabeecadaha sii kobcinta ee ardayda, guud ahaan jiirarka ma muujiyaan dhaqanka waalidnimada illaa faracooda ay dhalaan.

Cilmi-baadhistu waxay aqoonsan doontaa dadka qaaska ah ee qeexan, oo dhexdhexaadiya dhaqanka waalidnimada. Cilmi-baaristu waxay sidoo kale isbarbardhigaysaa wareegyada neuraliska ee ragga iyo dumarka si ay u fahmaan sida dhaqdhaqaaqa neerfaha ee qanjidhada nuucaani ay u dhaqmaan hab-dhaqanka waalidnimada. Cilmi-baaristaani waxay ku siin doontaa fikrado muhiim ah oo ku salaysan asalka asalka habdhaqan bulsheed oo muhiim ah iyo mabaadi'da aasaasiga ah ee xukuma dabeecadaha xag jirka ah ee jinsiga.

Rachel Roberts-Galbraith, Ph.D.Kaaliyaha Professor, Department of Biology Biology, Jaamacadda Georgia, Athens, GA

Dib-u-soo-nooleynta Nidaamka Dareemaha Dhexe ee Qorshayaasha

Iyadoo la baranayo dib-u-soo-ceshiga maskaxda ee adduunka dabiiciga ah, Dr. Roberts-Galbraith wuxuu rajeynayaa in uu barto faahfaahinta ku saabsan habka dib-u-dhiska midabada iyo doorka unugyada kala duwan. Ujeedada ayaa ah in la baaro haddii neurons ay ogaan karaan dhaawaca iyo dib-u-hagaajinta naftooda si ay u diraan calaamado muujinaya in ay kicinayaan isla markaana toosin lahaayeen. Dr. Roberts-Galbraith wuxuu cadeeyaa in xididada dareemayaasha ay saameyn ku yeeshaan unugyada maskaxda ee loo yaqaan 'planar stem cells', kuwaas oo loo qoro inay qaybo ka mid ah habka dhexe ee dareemayaasha (iyo qeybaha kale ee jirka). Xakamaynta wanaagsan ee unugyada stem waa mid muhiim u ah dib-u-soo-kabashada, maadaama ay qorsheeyayaashu si daacad ah u bedelaan unugyada maqan oo aan waligood horumarin burooyinka.

Ujeedada kale waa in la baaro doorka unugyada galmada, kuwaas oo caadiyan loo arko inay yihiin jeexjeexa nidaamka dareenka laakiin taasi si cad u leh doorarka muhiimka ah sida tan hore loo aqoonsan yahay. Unugyada glial waxay ka sameeyaan qayb ballaadhan oo ah xayawaanka 'dareenka' oo waa in dib loo soo celiyaa iyadoo lala socdo qanjidhada; waxay sidoo kale u badan tahay inay bedelaan dib-u-kicinta qanjidhada. Rajada cilmibaadhistaani waxay ku siin doontaa faham dheeraad ah sida dib-u-soo-kabashada ugu dhici karto kiisaska ugu guulaha badan, oo laga yaabo inay u sheegaan siyaabo cusub oo looga fekerayo dib-u-ceshiga neerfaha ee dadka.

Shigeki Watanabe, Ph.D.Kaaliyaha Professor of Biology Cell iyo Neuroscience, jaamacada Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD

Fahamka Mashruucyada Xuduudaha Lagu Beddelayo Dhacdooyinka

Dr. Watanabe wuxuu isticmaali doonaa farsamo la yiraahdo "flash-and-freeze microscopy" si loo baaro hannaankan. Nuuronka ayaa la kicin doonaa iftiin - fiilada - markaa habsocodka ayaa la joojin doonaa si buuxda oo cadaadis sarreeya waqti go'an waqtiyada saxda ah ee microseconds ka dib kacsanaan. Qalabka la qaboojiyey ayaa markaa la arki karaa iyada oo la isticmaalayo mikroskoobo. Iyadoo la qaadanayo sawirro taxane ah oo la qaboojiyey waqtiyada kala duwan ka dib wacyigelinta, Dr. Watanabe ayaa abuuri doona aragti tallaabo tallaabo tallaabo ah oo lagu ogaanayo borotiinka ku lug leh iyo waxa ay qabtaan. Ma aha oo kaliya tani waxay siinaysaa fahan wanaagsan oo ku saabsan sida uu u shaqeeyo nukliyadaha, waxa ay saameyn ku yeelaneysaa cudurada la xiriira gudbinta cillad xun, sida Cudurka Alzheimers.


Eiman Azim, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Shaybaarka Naasnuujiyaha Naasnuujiyeynta,

Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Bayoolojiga, La Jolla, CA

Xakameynta Spinal Circuits Xakamaynta Dhaqdhaqaaqa Dhibcaha ah

Dhaqdhaqaaqa adag ee gacmaheenna, gacmaheena iyo faraha ayaa aasaas u ah isdhexgalka maalinlaha ah ee adduunka, laakiin sayniska ayaa kaliya bilaabaya in uu xoqo dareenka fahamka sida xuubka neerfaha ee qaaska ah u xakameynayo saxda, xawaaraha iyo daacadnimada dabeecadahan kartida leh. Dr. Azim oo ah shaybaarka machadka Salk wuxuu ku yaalaa horudhaca arimahan, isaga oo dejinaya habab badan oo kala duwan oo loola jeedo in la naqshadeeyo kala duwanaanshaha maadooyinka, anatomical iyo hawlaha kala duwan ee wadooyinka mootooyinka hal mar. Ka faa'iideysiga horumarka dhawaan ee barashada mashiinka, teknoolajiyada aragtida kombuyuutarka iyo qalabka molecular-genetic, Azim Lab ayaa ujeedkiisu yahay in la horumariyo habab badan oo siman, oo aan si daacad ah lahayn, si sare loogu qaadayo si loo wada dhimo dhaqdhaqaaqa maskaxda ee dhaqdhaqaaqa - gaar ahaan dhaqdhaqaaqyo xirfad leh sida goolka la taaban karo iyo qabashada. Natiijooyinkoodu waxay caawin karayaan in la caddeeyo sida cudur ama dhaawac u gooyey fulinta dhaqdhaqaaqa caadiga ah ee dhaqdhaqaaqa, taas oo ka dhigaysa habka loogu talagalay ogaanshaha xanuunka iyo daaweynta.

Rudy Behnia, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Neuroscience, Columbia University-Zuckerman Mind Behind Behavior Institute, New York, NY

Nuuromodulation-ku-dawlad-ku-tiirsanaanta Himilada Miisaanka

Dr. Behnia waxa uu barayaa hababka firfircoon ee loo hindisay aragtida, sahaminta habka muuqaalka ee maskaxda ee ku dhaqma dabeecadaha waxayna caawisaa xayawaanka iyo bini-aadanka inay ku noolaadaan oo ku raaxaystaan jawiyada adag ee lagu hayo dareenka dareenka. Iyadoo la adeegsanayo nidaamka moodada miro-hawleedka, shaybaadhka Behnia wuxuu baaraa sida xayawaanku u arkaan oo u waafajiyo habdhaqankooda bedelida jawi iyada oo loo marayo farsamooyin kala duwan, oo ay ka mid yihiin gudaheeda hal sawir oo kabaro ah oo isku-xiran, laba sawir-qaadasho-sawir, farsamoyaqaan iyo dabeecadaha habdhaqanka. Doodda gaarka ah ee Dr. Behnia ee shaqada laga maalgaliyo McKnight wuxuu raadin doonaa sida dawladaha gudaha ah sida dareenka wax ka baddelaya dareenka maskaxda ee dareenka qaarkood, cilmi baaris ah oo daadi kara iftiinka cusub ee doorka neuromodululatorka ee ciyaaraya beddelidda shaqada wareegyada neuralada. Cilmi baaristani waxay sidoo kale muujin kartaa bartilmaameedyo cusub oo loogu talagalay xeeladaha daaweynta ee xanuunada sida niyad jabka iyo ADHD.

Felice Dunn, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco

Hirgalinta iyo Xeer-dejinta Aragga iyo Qalabka Cose

Cilmi-baadhistii Dr. Dunn waxa uu diiradda saarayaa sidii loo ogaan lahaa sida muuqaalka macluumaadka muuqaalkiisa loo xakameeyay oo laga baaraandego wareegga retina, aqoonta u furi karta jidadka cusub ee dib u soo celinta aragtida lumay. Inkasta oo cudurro badan oo retinal ah oo keena luminta aragga ama indho la'aantu ay ka bilaabmayso xumaynta fotoreceptors, sida cudurku u socdo inuu saameyn ku yeesho qanjirrada postsynaptic weli lama yaqaan. Dumarkeeda, Dunn waxay gashaa xayeysiinta transgenic ee wareega wareega ee fotoreceptors, duubista farsamada iyo sawiridda unugyada hal, iyo hababka gene-editing si ay u baaraan unugyada haray ee unugyada iyo synptses. Shaqadeeda waxay kaa caawin doontaa in la ogaado sida wareegga soo hadhay uu bedelo qaab-dhismeedkiisa iyo shaqadiisa ku-oolka ah ee xasaasiga ah, waxaana laga yaabaa in uu gacan ka geysto muujinta daaweynta suurtagalka ah ee la joojiyo ama looga hortago aragti la'aanta.

John Tuthill, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Physiology iyo Biophysics, Jaamacadda Washington, Seattle

Xakamaynta Macaamilka ee Meel-marinta Meel-marinta ee Drosophila

Mabaadi'da-dareenka jireed ee is-dhaqdhaqaaqa iyo isbeddelka-wuxuu muhiim u yahay, xakamaynta dhaqdhaqaaqa dhaqdhaqaaqa, weli wax yar ayaa laga ogyahay sida ay u socoto wareegyada wareega ee maskaxda si ay ula socdaan dhaqdhaqaaqa mustaqbalka. Dr. Tuthill's labadaba wuxuu ka shaqeynayaa inuu furo nuxurka barashada mashiinka maskaxda adoo baaraya sida duurjoogta miraha lugta leh ay bartaan in ay ka hortagaan caqabadaha oo ay ku socdaan jawi aan la saadaalin Karin, oo qiimeynaya doorka dareemaha dareenka ee maareynta maareynta iyada oo si sahlan loo adeegsado dhaqdhaqaaqa. Fahamka qoto dheer ee ku saabsan xakameynta jawaab celinta ee suurtogalka ah ayaa suurtagal ah in la bedelo habka aan u fahamno uguna daaweyno xanuunada dhaqdhaqaaqa.

Mingshan Xue, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Farsamaynta iyo Mashruuca Nidaamka Muusigga ah ee Qalabaynta Qalalaasaha Qalabka ah ee Vostostatic In Vivo

Hagaajinta agagaaraha adag iyo bedelida waddamada gudaha, maskaxda caafimaadku waxay xajisaa isku dheelitir joogto ah oo u dhexeeya kacsanaanta iyo ka hortagga (inta badan lagu tilmaamo sida saamiga E / I) taas oo si aad ah ugu xasilloon. Sidee ayay maskaxdu u joogtaa miisaankan? Dr. Xue's laboratory wuxuu sahmin doonaa su'aashan, isku duba ridida molecular, genetic, electrophysiological, optogenetic, sawirada, iyo hababka anatomical si loo go'aamiyo in balaastigga caadiga ah uu nidaamiyo jajabyada habka gaarka ah ee kudhaca jiilka, taas oo ilaalineysa heerarka dhaqdhaqaaqa neuronal iyo guryaha wax ka qabashada. Qaadashada faham qoto dheer oo ah sida maskaxda caadiga ah ay ufudud u yeelato xannibaadaha ayaa xoojin karta habka loogu talagalay in lagu daaweeyo cudurada dareemayaasha ee khalkhalka dabiiciga ah ee maskaxda.

Brad Zuchero, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Neurosurgery, Jaamacadda Stanford, Palo Alto, CA

Mechanisms of Myelin Membrane Kobaca iyo Wareejinta

Maqnaanshaha myelin - insulatorka korontada ee dusha sare ee qulqulka neuronal-wuxuu keeni karaa awood daran iyo garaadka garaadka ee bukaanka qaba sclerosis badan iyo cudurrada kale ee nidaamka dareenka dhexe. In la dhiso "habdhismeedka buugta" ee qaababka istiraatiijiga ah ee xoojiya abuurista myelin hada waa hadafka Dr. Zuchero ee shaybaadhka cilmibaadhista ee Jaamacadda Stanford. Isku-dubbaridka habab cusub oo ay ku jiraan microscopy-xallinta qiyaasta, genome-keeda CRISPR / Cas, iyo qalabka cytoskeletal ee novel-ka ee lagu sameeyay shaybaarkiisa, kooxda Zuchero ayaa baaraya sida iyo sababta finanku ay u baahan yihiin si xun u kala jajabnaanta ficilka oligodendrocyte actin cytoskelton, waxay muujinaysaa bartilmaameed cusub ama jidad daweyn ah oo loogu talagalay dib-u-dhiska iyo dayactirka.


Martha Bagnall, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Neuroscience, Jaamacadda Washington ee St. Louis School of Medicine

Xisaabinta dareenka iyo mootada ee koontaroolka rasmiga ah ee hoose 

Gaaritaanka ayaa muhiim u ah hawlaha caadiga ah, lakiin wax yar ayaa loo yaqaanaa sida maskaxdu ay ugu guulaysato calaamadaha dareenka ee ku saabsan jihada, dhaqdhaqaaqa iyo culeyska iyada oo loo marayo xangulaha si loo ilaaliyo jirka "dhinaca midig". on nidaamka vestibular of Zebrafish, qaabdhismeedka leh xadhigga laf-dhabarka si weyn u la mid ah naasaha limbed. Horumarinta hore, xadhkaha lafdhabarta ee xayawaanka yareerna ah waa kuwo hufan, iyagoo cilmi-baadhayaasha siinaya qiimo badan oo ka mid ah dadyowga kala duwan ee nuucyada loo isticmaalo inta lagu jiro dhaqdhaqaaqyada kala duwan. Inaad barato waxyaabo dheeraad ah oo ku saabsan sida loo maro hababka marxaladaha kala duwan ee hore loo marayo inta lagu guda jiro dabeecadaha dambe ee xayawaanka-u oggolaanaya xayawaanka si ay u hagaajiyaan isbeddelka rukunka iyo qashinka-Bagnall ee cilmi-baarista ayaa laga yaabaa inay muujiso helitaan cusub oo ku saabsan isku xirnaanta neerfaha culus ee maamula dhaqanka u dhigma ee dadka. Shaqadeeda waxay sidoo kale u sheegi kartaa horumarinta qalabka caawinaya dadka inay dib u helaan dheelitirkooda iyo durbaba, iyo inay hagaajiyaan nolosha dadka ay miisaankoodu ku xumaaday dhaawac ama cudur.

Stephen Brohawn, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Neurobiology, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, Jaamacadda California, Berkeley

Mechanisms of dareemaha awood bayoolaji

Dr. Brohawn wuxuu barayaa nidaamka korantada nolosha ee laga helo muuqaalka molecular iyo biophysical, iyada oo xoogga la saarayo helitaanka jawaabta su'aasha "Sideen u dareemeynaa? "  Awoodda nidaamka dareenka ee dareemayaasha farsamada waa mid ka mid ah aasaaska dhageysiga iyo dheelitirka, laakiin saynisku weli wali shaaca ka qaadin mashiinnada borotiinka oo beddelaya xoogagga farsamaysan ee curyaaminta korantada. Isticmaalida noocyo kala duwan oo ka soo baxa kiriimyada raajada oo loo yaqaan 'cryo-electron microscopy', shaybaarta Brohawn ayaa qaadata 'hoosta hoose' ee su'aasha ah, qabashada xakamaynta atomiga ee borotiinka xuubka ah marka nasashada iyo xooggaba. Qaadashada fahamka sida maqalka iyo isku dheelitirka shaqada ee heer jajaban oo faahfaahsan ayaa laga yaabaa inay saldhig u noqoto daweynta cusub si loo hagaajiyo nolosha dadka shakhsiyaadka la kulmay maqalka ama luminta maqaarka.

Mehrdad Jazayeri, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Machadka Massachusetts ee Teknoolojiyada / Machadka Machadka Cilmi-baarista Maskaxda

Qalabka xaraashka ah ee waqtiyada muraayada jilicsan

Dr. Jazayeri waxay barataa sida maskaxdu ay u socoto wakhti ayadoo la baarayo niyadda jimicsiga oo noo ogolaaneysa in aan rajeyno, cabirno, iyo soo saarno waqtiyo kala duwan. Marka laga sheekeysto wada sheekeysiga, barashada muusikada, si loo ciyaaro isboortiga, waqtigu waa mid muhiim u ah fahamka iyo farsamada, laakiin mabaadii'da aasaasiga ah ee aasaasiga ah iyo hababka maskaxeed ee wakhtiga ayaa weli aan la aqoon. Si aad u ogaatid dhismaha muhiimka ah ee dhismaha, Jazayeri wuxuu baray jaanisyo si loo soo saaro wakhti go'an, sida haddii lagu garaaco muusikada - hab uu sii wato horumarka iyada oo shaybaarkiisa cilmi-baaristu ay u shaqeyneyso si loo ogaado asalka asaliga ah ee isdhexgalka dareemada, iyo sababo macquul ah. Cilmi-baaristiisu waxay sii wadi kartaa fahamkeena isbedelka garashada ee noo ogolaanaya inaanu bixino dareenka, la qabsiga macluumaadka cusub, iyo in la sameeyo odhaahyo, iyada oo aqoonsanaya bartilmaameedyada waaweyn ee noocyada kala duwan ee garashada garashada.

Katherine Nagel, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda New York University School of Medicine / Neuroscience Institute

Nidaamka naqshadaha ee dabeecadda raadinta dabeecadda ah ee dabeecadda raadinta ee drosophila melanogaster

Dr. Nagel wuxuu ogaaday sida dukaamada miraha ay isugu keenaan macluumaadka dareenka si ay u helaan habkooda cunto - dabeecad sahlan oo laga yaabo inay iftiin cusub u yeelato wareegga neerfaha ee maskaxda oo u oggolaanaya in maskaxdu ay u rogto dareemo ficil. Qalab maskaxeed oo leh maskax fudud oo awood u leh inuu sameeyo "go'aamada garabka," duuduubka miraha way soo jeedaan marka ay la kulmaan duufaanta isbeddelka urta soo jiidashada leh, raadso hoos udhaca marka urta lumo. Si aad u hesho ilo cunto ah, duqsigu waa inuu dhexgaliyaa wax-qabadka, farsamada, iyo wax-aragnimada muuqda, wuxuuna beddel-geliyaa waxyaabahaan go'aannada macquulka ah. Dumarka Nagel waxay isticmaalaan falanqaynta habdhaqanka habdhaqanka ah, farsamaynta maskaxda, farsamooyinka hidda, iyo qaabka xisaabinta si loo ogaado sida isdhexgalka ee ka shaqeeya hal unug, hal nadiif ah mid ka mid ah hababka hagid hore ee maskaxda. Mid ka mid ah baadhayaashii ugu muhiimsanaa barnaamijka National Science Foundation oo la yiraahdo "Cracking Code of Olfactory," cilmi-baadhista Nagel ayaa horay u sii marin kara neuroscience jihada cusub, oo ka muuqda wax badan oo ku saabsan sida maskaxda bani'aadamku u xisaabiso meel iyo waqti, si loo ogaado horumarka mustaqbalka ee olfactory robots.

Matthew Pecot, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Harvard Medical School

Qeexida calaamad-isweydaarsiga qoraalka ah ee kumbuyuutarka ee nidaamka naqshadaha Drosophila 

Xaqiiqda oo ay tahay nuucyada nuddoonka ah ee isku xirka synaptic ayaa aasaas u ah dabeecadaha xayawaanka, haddana sida qanjiradu u aqoonsadaan lamaanayaasha saxda ah ee saxda ah iyada oo ay adag tahay in dhibka hurgunka ah ee nidaamka dareenka aysan cadeyn. Si loo ogaado mabaadi'da maadiga ah ee asal u ah qiyaasta qalafsan ee "Pecot Lab" waxay ku xirantahay naqshadaha necbaalka ee nidaamka muuqaalka duulista, kaas oo ka kooban noocyo hidde ah oo loo yaqaan "genesically accessible neuron" oo leh habab loo yaqaan ee isku xirnaanta synaptic. Iyadoo lagu saleynayo cilmi-baaristooda, waxay soo jeedinayaan in lamaanayaasha saxda ah ee astaamaha ah ay muujinayaan borotiinka caadiga ah ee miisaanka caadiga ah kaas oo xakameynaya muujinta meco-baarayaasha oo baraya isku-xirnaanta synaptic. Xaqiijinta in neuranno loo qoondeeyey inay sameystaan xidhiidhyo waxay muujinayaan isla miisaaniyadaha mihnadlaha ah inay bixin karaan istaraatiijiyad sahlan oo lagu dhisayo isku xirnaanta neeriga. Iyada oo sii kordheysa oo caddaynta caddaynta cilladaha ku xirnaanta neeriga ah sida darawalnimada cudurka neurologiga, cilmi baarista Dr. Pecot ayaa dhiiri gelin karta istiraatiijiyooyinka daaweynta ee diirada saaraya dib u soo celinta xiniinyaha neerfaha ee dadka dhibaateysan.

Michael Yartsev, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Bioengineering Assistant Professor, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, Jaamacadda California, Berkeley

Naasiriyoolojiga aasaasiga ah ee barashada wax soo saarka dhawaaqa ee maskaxda naasaha ee koraya

Luqadda ayaa ku jirta wadnaha ah waxa macneheedu tahay in uu noqdo aadanaha. Waxaan leenahay awood aan ku baran karno barashada dhawaaqa ah ee aan la wadaagno noocyo yar oo nuucyo ah. Dr. Yartsev wuxuu bilaabay baaritaan faahfaahsan oo ku saabsan barashada wax soo saarka dhawaaqa ee maskaxda mammalian, iyada oo la isticmaalayo budhcad farabadan si ay uga caawiso ka jawaabida su'aasha ah waxa ku saabsan maskaxdeenna noo ogolaaneysa inaan barano luqadda. Isticmaalidda tiknoolajiyadda cusub ee loo yaqaano nukliyarka caadiga ah ee nukliyeerka, maaddada 'optogenetics', sawiridda iyo sawirada anatomical, Yartsev iyo kooxda ayaa rajeynaya inay xalliyaan hababka neerfaha ee hoos yimaada awoodda maskaxda ee lagu helo luqadda. Shaqada Yartsev ayaa sidoo kale siin karta fikrado cusub oo ku saabsan dib-u-dhacyada hadalka carruurnimada, af-soomaaliga iyo luuqadaha kale ee lumiska iyo horumarka.


Mark Andermann, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard

Waddada gaabinta wax-qabadka cuntada ee maqalka jawiga cuntada ee kortex-insulada

Cilmi-baaristii Dr. Andermann wuxuu wax ka qabtaa siyaabaha maskaxda u ogaadaan oo u dhaqdhaqaaqa sawirrada la xiriira cuntada, gaar ahaan marka qofku gaajo u yahay. Shaqadiisu waxay ku saleysantahay baahida degdegga ah ee bulshadeed si loo hormariyo daweynta guud ee buurnaanta. Aadanuhu waxay fiiriyaan waxyaabaha ay jidhkooda u sheegaan inay u baahan yihiin. Feejignaan badan oo ku saabsan calaamadaha cuntada, taas oo keenta in la raadiyo cunto ka badan intii loo baahdo, waxay ku sii jiri kartaa shakhsiyaadka qaba buurnaanta ama cunto cunidda, xitaa marka la fadhiisto. Dumarka Andermann waxay samaysay hab ku salaysan laba sawir oo calcium ah iyada oo loo marayo khiyaamo si loo barto boqolaal miyir-beelka miyirka ah, waxayna ogaatay in jawaabta maskaxda ee sawirrada la xidhiidha cuntadu ay ku kala duwanyihiin iyadoo ku xiran hadday jiirtu gaajeysnayd iyo mid calaamadaysan. Kombiyuutarka Andermann wuxuu la shaqeeyaa khabiirada shaybaadhka ee Dr. Brad Lowell ee maskaxda xakameynaya gaajada-si loo baro xajka xajmiga xayawaanka si loo raadiyo siyaabo looga hortago xakamaynta cuntooyinka khaldan ee maadooyinka caanka ah.

John Cunningham, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Department of Statistics, Jaamacadda Columbia

Qaab-dhismeedka xisaabinta ee dadweynaha qanjirrada ee ku yaal koontada

Ujeeddada cilmi-baarista ee Dr. Cunningham waa in la hormariyo fahamka sayniska ee asalka habdhaqan ee dabeecadaha adag. Tusaale ahaan, faham fiican ee doorka maskaxda ee abuuritaanka dhaqdhaqaaqa ikhtiyaarka ah wuxuu suurtagal noqon karaa in malaayiin qof oo qaba naafonimada ay sababaan cudur iyo dhaawac. Cunningham waa qayb ka mid ah kuwa yar yar laakiin sii kordhaya ee tirakoobayaasha oo isticmaalaya farsamooyinka iyo farsamooyinka barashada mashiinka cilmi baarista neuroscience. Wuxuu isku daraa qaybaha xisaabta, tirakoobka, iyo sayniska kombiyuutarka si loo soo saaro fikrado macne leh oo ka soo baxa miisaaniyado aad u ballaadhan oo lagu sameeyay tijaabooyin. Wuxuu doonayaa inuu xoojiyo farqiga u dhaxeeya duubista xogta iyo mushaharka sayniska, isagoo doonaya inuu abuuro qalab farsamo oo isaga iyo cilmi-baarayaasha kale ay xajin karaan. Qaababka falanqaynta ee awood u leh inay wax ka qabtaan datasets aad u ballaaran ayaa lagama maarmaan u ah beerta, gaar ahaan cilmi-baarayaashu waxay ku qoraan xogta sii kordhaysa ee adag.

Roozbeh Kiani, MD, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor, Jaamacadda New York, Xarunta Sayniska Nool

Nidaamyada go'aanka ah ee hannaanka ah ee ka shaqeeya wakhtiyada kala duwan ee qaddarinta waxay ku hoos jiraan doorashooyinka iyo isbedelka istaraatijiyadda

Dr. Kiani wuxuu baarayaa sida dabeecadaha la qabatimay ay ku dhacaan go'aan qaadashada. Go'aannada waxaa lagu hagaa macluumaad la heli karo iyo istaraatiijiyooyin isku xira macluumaadka ficilka. Ka dib natiijo xumi, laba ilo oo suurta gal ah oo ah istiraatiijiyad qaldan ee qaldan iyo xogta liidata-waa in la kala saaraa si loo hagaajiyo waxqabadka mustaqbalka. Nidaamkani wuxuu ku xidhan yahay isdhexgalka qaybo badan oo juquraafi ah iyo kuwo yaryar oo isku dhafan oo si wadajir ah u matala macluumaadka dareenka, dib u soo xasuusashada xusuusta, iyo qorsheynta iyo fulinta falalka la doonayo. Cilmi-baaristii Dr. Kiani wuxuu diiradda saari doonaa hababka neerfaha ee hirgeliya geeddi-socodka, gaar ahaan sida ilaha macluumaadka loo wadaago, sida macluumaadka loo qoondeeyay loo soo xushay iyo ka soo jiidatay mid ka mid ah hal maskax si kale, iyo sida geeddi-socodka go'aan-qaadashada uu u kobcayo fikradaha shakhsi ahaaneed ee ku saabsan Natiijooyinka la filayo. Daraasaddiisu waxay yeelan kartaa saameyn muddo dheer ah oo ku aaddan daraasadda xanuunka neerfaha ee carqaladeynaya geeddi-socodka go'aan-qaadashada sida schizophrenia, xanuunka qallafsan, iyo Alzheimers.

Yuki Oka, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Biology, Machadka Teknoloojiyada California

Qaababka Dhexdhexaadka ah iyo Xarumaha Dhexe ee Xakamaynta Nukliyeerka

Shaybaadhka Dr. Oka waxa uu barayaa hababka neerfaha ee jidhka ka soo baxa ee dareeraha, oo ah hawsha aasaasiga ah ee nidaamiya isu dheelitirka biyaha iyo cusbada jirka. Kooxdiisa ayaa ujeedadeedu tahay inay fahmaan sida calaamadaha dhexe iyo kuwa dhexe ay u maamulaan habdhaqanka cabitaanka biyaha. Hadafkan ujeedada, kooxda cilmi-baarista waxay isku-duba-ridayaan qalabka faytoolojiga iyo qalabka neefsiga si loo qeexo wareegyada maskaxda ee gaarka ah ee door weyn ka ciyaaraya xakamaynta haraadka. Waxay markaa ka baaraandegi doonaan sida hawlaha wareegyadaasi u habeynayaan calaamadaha biyaha dibadda. Shaqadiisu waxay saameyn weyn ku yeelan kartaa daaweynta cusub ee daaweynta ee xanuunka cuntada la xiriira.

Abigail Person, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Physiology and Biophysics, Jaamacadda Colorado Denver

Farsamooyinka wareegga ee saxda ah ee gawaarida

Dhaq-dhaqaaqu waxay udub-dhexaad u tahay dabeecadaha oo dhan, hase yeeshee xarumaha xakamaynta maskaxda ayaa si fudud loo fahmi karaa. Dr. Shaqada shaqsigu wuxuu sahamiyaa sida maskaxdu u socoto dhaqdhaqaaqa. Shaybaarka shakhsiga wuxuu si gaar ah u xiiseynayaa qayb qadiimi ah oo maskaxda ah oo la yiraahdo cerebellum, isagoo weydiinaya sida ay calaamadaha u xaqiijiyaan amarrada gawaarida ee joogtada ah. Muraayaddu waxay si gaar ah u soo jiidatay falanqaynta wareegga sababta oo ah noocyada unugyada iyo unugyada ayaa si fiican loo qeexay. Si kastaba ha noqotee, qaababka soo saarida, oo la yiraahdo nuclei nuclei, waxay jebinayaan sharcigaan waana mid aad u qoto dheer, sidaa daraadeed, aad u jahwareer badan. Isticmaalidda farsamooyin kala duwan, farsamoyaqaan, farsamooyinka anatomical iyo farsamooyinka, cilmi-baaristu waxay ujeedadeedu tahay in la xakameeyo iskudhafyada calaamadaha ee nuclei si ay u fasiraan sida ay ugu adeegto xakamaynta mootada. Qofku wuxuu filayaa in cilmi-baaristu ay siin karto daaweeynayaasha si ay u fahmaan xeeladaha daaweynta ee dadka qaba cudurka cerebellar, waxaana laga yaabaa in ay gacan ka geysan karto fasalka teknoolajiyada isticmaala calaamadaha neuralada si loo xakameeyo addimada.

Wei Wei, Ph.D., Kaaliyaha Professor of Neurobiology, University of Chicago

Qalabka dendritic ee dhaqdhaqaaqa muuqaalka ee sawir-qaaddada

Cilmi-baarista Dr. Wei ayaa raadinaysa in la fahmo hababka neerfaha ee dhaqdhaqaaqa dhaqdhaqaaqa laf-dhabarka. Marxaladda ugu horeysa ee waxqabadka muuqaalka ee maskaxdu waxay ku dhacdaa hiddo-qabadka, meesha fotosurada ka soo baxday addiga jireed ayaa loo badalaa calaamadaha nudaha ee indhaha. In badan oo ka mida kamarad, raajada ayaa u shaqeysa sida kombiyuutar yar oo bilaabaya in ay ka baaraandegaan aragti muuqaal ah oo ku dhufto ilo badan oo xog ah ka hor inta aanay u gudbin xarumaha muuqaalka sare ee maskaxda. Qiyaasaha hadda jira waxaa ka jira in ka badan 30 xargo oo ah dareemaha, wax walba oo ka mid ah hababka kala duwan, sida dhinacyada dhaqdhaqaaqa, midabka iyo isdhexgalka. Deeqda Dr. Wei ayaa isticmaalaya nalalka iftiinka si ay u bartaan sida loo arko sida ay sawiradu u go'aamiso jihada sawirka. Shaqadeeda waxay soo saari doontaa shuruucda waxqabadka muuqaalka ah ee heerka hoose iyo heer-jimicsiga, iyo in la fahmo mabaadi'da guud ee xisaabinta maskaxda ee maskaxda.


Susanne Ahmari, Jaamacadda Pittsburgh 
Aqoonsiga Isbedelada Xilliyeedka Nooca-Dhexdhexaadinta Dabeecadaha la xiriira OCD

Marlene Cohen, Jaamacadda Pittsburgh
Tijaabooyinka Xaaladda iyo Dhexdhexaadinta ee Hantidhowrka ee Farsamooyinka Naas-nuujinta Qaabilsan ee Feejignaanta Ku lug leh isdhexgalka u dhexeeya xaafadaha koonfureed 

Daniel Dombeck, Jaamacadda Northwestern
Dhaqdhaqaaqa Farsamooyinka, Ururka iyo Tifaftirka Goobta Qalabka Dendritic Spear 

Surya GanguliJaamacadda Stanford
Laga soo bilaabo xogta Neur ilaa fahamka Neurobiological iyada oo loo marayo Tirakoobka Heerka Sare iyo Aragtida

Gaby Maimon, Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Qaabbilaadda Naas-nuujinta ee loogu talagalay Hawlaha Gudaha ee gudaha

Kay Tye, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Dib-u-hagaajinta Mashruuca Nidaamka Dabiiciga ah ee Qalabka Nidaamka Qiimaynta Caqliyada


Jessica Cardin, Jaamacadda Yale
Mechanisms of Regulation Xakamaynta Gobolka ee Ku-Xadka

Robert Froemke, Dugsiga NYU ee Daawada
Naqshadaha Nuuralinta iyo Buufiska ee Xakamaynta Habdhaqanka Bulshada ee Xaasaasiga ah

Ryan Hibbs, UT Xarunta Caafimaadka ee Koonfur-Galbeed
Qaabdhismeedka iyo Qaabdhismeedka Dareemayaasha Necalkal Acetylcholine

Jeremy Kay, Jaamacadda Duke
Kulanka Rakaabka Jihada-Raadinta Xulashada

Takaki Komiyama, UC San Diego 
Cortex Gawaarida Gawaarida Waxbarashada Gawaarida

Ilana Witten, Jaamacadda Princeton
Dib udhigista Xusuusta Shaqada: Dopamine Neurons iyo Nidaamkooda Target 


Hillel Adesnik, University of California-Berkeley
Optically Probing Naqshadda Aasaasiga ah ee aragtida

Mark Churchland, Jaamacadda Columbia
Dhismaha Neural-ka ee Bilowga Dhaq-dhaqaaqa Iskaa-wax-u-qabsiga

Elissa Hallem, University of California - Los Angeles
Urur Fulineed ee Xaaladaha Dareenka ee C.Elegans

Andrew Huberman, University of California - San Diego
Xawaaraha Trans-Synaptic ee Hagaajinta Maareynta Dirawalka

Dayu Lin - Xarunta Caafimaadka NYI Langone
Qaabdhismeedka wareegga ee dib-u-dhac dhexdhexaadin ah

Nicole Rust - Jaamacadda Pennsylvania
Qaababka Nuuraliyaanka ah ee Mas'uulka ka ah Aqoonsiga Noocyada iyo helitaanka Himilooyinka


Anne Churchland, Cold Shub Xilliga Guga
Nanjing Circuits ah ee Go'aan-Gaar ah ee Gaarista

Patrick Drew, Jaamacadda Pennsylvania State University
Sawiridda Naas-nuujinta Xididada Qalabka Dabeecadda

David Freedman, University of Chicago
Nidaamka Qalabaynta ee Qaabilaynta Muuqaalka iyo Go'aansiga

Mala Murthy, Jaamacadda Princeton
Naas-nuujinta Qalabka Nadaafadeed ee Aasaasiga ah ee Isgaadhsiinta Akhstic ee Drosophila

Jonathan Pillow, University of Texas ee Austin
Dib u dhigista Wakiilada Kortmeelka ee Heerka Suxuumadaha, Dhaqaalaha, iyo Qabsashada

Vanessa Ruta, Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Waxqabadka Qaabdhismeedka Dhaqdhaqaaqa Dhaqanka ee Neural Xaaladaha 


Adam Carter, Ph.D., Jaamacadda New York
Sifafka Gaarka ah ee Xaaladaha Striatal

Sandeep Robert Datta, MD, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Naas-nuujinta Naas-nuujinta Awood-darrada Aargoosiga-Cilmi-qaadista

Qing Fan, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Columbia
Mashruuca Molecular ee Gawaarida GABA ee Metabotropic Function

Ila Fiete, Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Xaqiijinta Cortical Correction ee Xisaabinta dhow

Winrich Freiwald, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Laga soo bilaabo Aqoonsiga Fada ee Aqoonsiga Bulshada

Nathaniel Sawtell, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Columbia
Mechanisms for Prediction Sensory ee Xilliyada Cerebellar 


Anatol C. Kreitzer, Ph.D., J. David Gladstone Institute
Function iyo Qalalaasaha Basal Ganglia Circuits ee Vivo

Seok-Yong Lee, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Duke
Qaabdhismeedka iyo farshaxanka ee dareemayaasha tamarta qalabka sodium

Stavros Lomvardas, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California
Farsamooyinka maaddada farsamooyinka ee habka daaweeye ee olfactory

Song-Hai Shi, Ph.D., Xarunta Kansarka Kudheelka ee Memorial-Kettering
Wax soo saarka dhuunta iyo ururinta interneurons ee ku jira nambarka neefka

Andreas S. Tolias, Ph.D., Baylor College of Medicine
Urur-ka-shaqeynta kiniiniga kortikal 


Diana Bautista, Ph.D., University of California Berkeley
Mashruuca Molecular iyo Cellulars of Mammalian Touch iyo Xanuun

James Bisley, Ph.D., University of California Los Angeles
Kaalinta Kortekooliyada Casriga ah ee Cortex ee Hagaha iyo Eye Dhaqanka

Nathaniel Daw, Ph.D., Jaamacadda New York
Go'aanka Sameynta Hawlaha Lagu Dhisayo, Qodobbada Loo Qaadayo: Isku-dhafashada Habdhaqanka, Habdhaqanka, iyo Naas-nuujinta

Alapakkam Sampath, Ph.D., University of Southern California
Doorka Hawlgalka Fiican ee Dejinta Iskuduwaha Dareenka

Tatyana Sharpee, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Bayalka
Muuqaalka Iskujirida ee Sawirrada muuqaalka ee Maskaxda

Kausik Si, Ph.D., Boostada Machadka Cilmi-baarista Caafimaadka
Doorka Maaddada Prion-sida Molecule ee Xasuusta 


Jeremy Dasen, Ph.D., New York University School of Medicine
Mechanisms of Specific Synthtic in Cudurka Spert Cord

Wesley Grueber, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka ee Columbia Columbia
Dendritic Field Describing by Culimada Soo Jiidashada ah

Greg Horwitz, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Caawinta Magnocellular ee Midabaynta Midabka

Coleen Murphy, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Princeton
Astaamaha Maasuqu ee Xasilinta Xusuusta Mudada Dheer ee Da'da

Bence Olveczky, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Ururka Shaqada ee Nawkiladaha Xilliyada Ogaanshaha Barashada Dareemaha

Liam Paninski, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Columbia
Isticmaalaan Tilmaamaha Soodhiga ee Sare si loo Ciribtiro Xeerka Dadweynaha

Bijan Pesaran, Ph.D., Jaamacadda New York
Go'aansiga Goob Joogta ah iyo Meel Gaar Ah 


Stephen A. Baccus, Ph.D., Stanford University Medical School
Qalabka Functional of Neural Coding ee Retina

Karl A. Deisseroth, MD, Ph.D., Stanford University Medical School
Wareysiga Multi-Channel Quick Optical Interrogation ee Circuitry Circuit Neual Living

Gilbert Di Paolo, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka ee Columbia Columbia
Nidaam Cusub oo loogu talagalay Is-beddelka Qalalaasaha Is-beddelka ee Mabaadi'dda PIP2 ee Dabaysha

Adrienne Fairhall, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Waxyaabaha lagusoo gooyo ee ku-meel-gaadhka ah ee La-xisaabtanka iyo Xakamaynta Mushaaraadka

Maurice A. Smith, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Moodhalka Heshiiska ee Isdhexgalinta Nidaamyada La qabadsiiyo si loo sharaxo Guryaha Waxbarashada Gaadiidka Gaaban iyo Waqti-Dheer

Fan Wang, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Duke
Maaddooyinka Molecular iyo Cilmi-baadhista Hiddaha ee Mammalian Touch Sensation

Rachel Wilson, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Noocyada Biyofizik iyo Molecular ee Iskudhicidda Dhexdhexaadinta Central ee Drosophila 


Thomas Clandinin, Ph.D., Stanford University Medical School
Sidee u aragtaa aragtida aragtida leh ee isbeddelka leh ee isbeddel ku yimaad dhaqdhaqaaqa neerfayaasha?

James DiCarlo, MD, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Maqnaanshaha Qalabka Nidaamka Dhexdhexaadinta ee Aqoonsiga Walaxda Waqtiga Dabeecadda Dabiiciga ah

Florian Engert, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Astaanta Naafonimada ee Dabeecadda La-Qabtay ee Dhaqanka ee Larval Zebrafish

Youxing Jiang, Ph.D., University of Texas, Xarunta Caafimaadka ee Koonfureed
Mechanisms Molecular of Ion Doorashada ee hababka CNG

Tirin Moore, Ph.D., Stanford University Medical School
Mashruucyada Xasuusashada Visuospatial iyo Xusuusta Shaqada

Hongjun Song, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Johns Hopkins University ee Daawada
Mechanisms Habeynta Isdhexgalka Synaptic ee Neurons Generated in Maskaxda Dadka Weyn

Elke Stein, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Yale
Isbeddelidda Nitrin-1-Dhexdhexaadin ah ee Iskudhinimo iyada oo loo marayo Crocstalk Intracellular 


Athanossios Siapas, Ph.D., Machadka Kaliyah ee California
Isdhexgalka Cortico-Hippocampal iyo Is-beddelidda Xusuusta

Nirao Shah, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Wakiil ka mid ah Habdhaqanka Jooniska Dimorifiska ee Maskaxda

Aravinthan Samuel, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Nidaamka Biyofiska ah ee Qaabdhismeedka Habdhaqanka Dabeecadda

Bernardo Sabatini, MD, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Xeerarka Sinaptic ee Nidaamka Neuromodulatory

Miriam Goodman, Ph.D.Jaamacadda Stanford
Fahmidda Qalabka Sawir-Qaadashada Sawir-gacmeed ee Neurons

Matteo Carandini, Ph.D., Machadka Cilmi-baadhista Eye Smith-Kettlewell
Waxyeelada Jawaab-celinta Dadweynaha ee Cortex Muuqaal 


Ricardo Dolmetsch, Ph.D.Jaamacadda Stanford
Falanqaynta Falanqaynta ee Kalsiyumka Baranbarada

Loren Frank, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Nuural Dhexdhexaadinta Waxbarashada ee Hippocampal - Circuit Cortical

Rachelle Gaudet, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Daraasadaha Dhismaha ee Qiyaasaha Heer-kuleelka Dareeraha ee TRP

Z. Josh Huang, Ph.D., Cold Shub Xilliga Guga
Mashruucyada Maaddooyinka Molecular oo hoos imaanaya Nidaamka Subcellular ee GABAergic Synapses

Kang Shen, MD, Ph.D.Jaamacadda Stanford
Fahmidda Qodobka Molecular ee Muuqaalka Targetka ee qaabaynta Synapse

David Zenisek, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Yale
Baarista xakamaynta Rugcadda Sinjiga ah ee Exocytosis 


Michael Brainard, Ph.D. Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Habdhaqanka Dabeecadda iyo Dhaqanka Nadiifnimada ee Adult Birdsong

Joshua Gold, Ph.D. Jaamacadda Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Neerarka Asaasiga Ah ee Go'aamada Aan Si Xeelad Ah Loo Xiriirin iyo Tallaabada

Jacqueline Gottlieb, Ph.D. Jaamacadda Columbia
Nooca Dhabarka ah ee Aragga iyo Feejignaanta Dufanka Kortex Guryo Jawi ah

Zhigang He, Ph.D. Isbitaalka Carruurta
Kormeerida Mechanisms of Axon Cusbashada Dib-u-dhaca ee Nidaamka Dareemida Xanuunka Adult

Kristin Scott, Ph.D. Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Muuqaalada dhadhanka ee maskaxda Drosophila 


Aaron DiAntonio, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Falanqaynta Hiddaha ee Horumarinta Synaptic

Marla Feller, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Nidaamka Dugsi-dejinta ee Nafaqo-darrada ah ee Horumarinta Mammalian Retina

Bharathi Jagadeesh, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Baaxadda Waxyaabaha iyo Nawaaxida Xuubka Xulashada ee Kortexleerka Cortex-ka

Bingwei Lu, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Habka Hidda-u-Dhowrka ah ee Habdhaqanka Nuural Stem Cell

Philip Sabes, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Nidaamka Isku-dhafka ah iyo Mabaadi'da Xisaabinta ee Isku-xidhka Visuomotor ee Gaaritaanka

W. Martin Usrey, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Davis
Hawlaha Fikradaha ee Feedforward iyo Waddooyinka Jawaabta ee Vision 


Daniel Feldman, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Khariidadda Asaasiga ah ee Khariidadda Whisker Khariidad ku taal Cufex qamriga

Kelsey Martin, MD, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
Isgaarsiinta Inta u dhaxaysa Sinis iyo Nucleus inta lagu guda jiro Nadiifinta Synaptic muddo dheer

Daniel Minor, Jr., Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Daraasooyinka Sare-Xakamaynta ee Xeerka Ion Channel

John Reynolds, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Nidaamka Isku-dhafka Nidaamka Isdhexgalka Muuqaalka

Leslie Vosshall, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Biology Molecular ee Aqoonsiga Odorka ee Drosophila

Anthony Wagner, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mechanisms of Formation Memory: Kordhinta horudhac ah Cabbitaanka Episodic 


John Assad, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Saameynta Hurgumada Muddada-dheer iyo Dhaqdhaqaaqa Gaaban ee Ku-saabsan Ku-Xakamaynta Muuq-galka Muuqaalka ee Cortex Parietal

Eduardo Chichilnisky, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Farshaxanka iyo Fikirka Hawleedka: Dhiirrigalinta Calaamadaha Noocyada Caanaha ee Aqoonsiga ee Primate Retina

Frank Gertler, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kaalinta xakamaynta nidaamyada xayeysiiska ku salaysan ee korontada iyo koritaanka

Jeffry Isaacson, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Mabaadi'da Isku-dhafan ee Xaaladaha Dhaqan-Dhexe ee Bartamaha

Richard Krauzlis, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Isuduwidda Dhaqdhaqaaqa Isku-kalsoonaanta ee Isku-dhafka ah ee Collectulus Superior

H. Sebastian Seung, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Xasuusta iyo Iskuxirka ee Nidaamka Biyoolojiga

Jian Yang, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Columbia
Isku-darka Kalamoyinka iyo Iskudhufinta Qodobka Wax-ka-Beddelka Is-beddelada Qalalaasaha Casriga ah 


Michael Ehlers, MD, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Duke
Qawaaniinta Molecular ee NMDA Receptors

Jennifer Raymond, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
In Vivo Analysis of Physiological Mutations that affect the Learning Cerebellum Depending Learning

Fred Rieke, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Xakamaynta Xaddidan iyo Fursado Xushmadda Noocyada Ganglionka ee Retinal Ganglion

Henk Roelink, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Sonic Hedgehog Calaamadaha Is-beddelka Qalalaasaha Maskaxda ee ay ku dhacdo Cyclopamine

Alexander Schier, Ph.D., New York University School of Medicine
Qaababka Mashruuca Bannaanka Hore

Paul Slesinger, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Aqoonsiga isdhexgalka isdhexgalka ee ku lug leh Xeerka G Protein ee Qaybaha Potassium

Michael Weliky, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rochester
Kaalinta Hawsha Qalitaanka Naas-nuujinta ee Kobcinta Muuqaalka


Paul Garrity, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Axon Targeting ee Nidaamka Muuqaalka Drosophila

Jennifer Groh, Ph.D., Dartmouth College
Dib-u-habeynta Iskuduwida

Phyllis Hanson, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington University School of Medicine
Doorka Nadaafadayaasha Molecular ee Funynaptic Function

Eduardo Perozo, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Virginia School of Medicine
Daraasad Sare ee Qaab-dhismeedka ee K + Pore

Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Jaamacadda New York
Hawlgallada qiyaasta ee Kortex Parakippocampal Cortex


Ulrike I. Gaul, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Qalabka Cell iyo Molecular ee Hanuuninta Axon ee Nidaamka fudud ee Vivo System

Liqun Luo, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Mashruucyada Molecular ee Horumarka Dendrite: Daraasadaha GTPs Rac iyo Cdc42

Mark Mayford, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Xakamaynta Xakamaynta Genetic of Synaptic Cudurka, Barashada, iyo Xusuusta

Peter Mombaerts, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Mechanisms of Qaybta Axon ee Nidaamka Olfactory

Samuel L. Pfaff, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Xakamaynta Nadaafadda ee Nafaqada Qalitaanka Neerarka Gaarka ah ee Neuron Axon

David Van Vactor, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Falanqaynta Genes ee Xakameynaya Hagaha Axka Qaadka ee Drosophila


Paul W. Glimcher, Ph.D., Jaamacadda New York
Naasnobiological Basis of Attention Attention

Cali Hemmati-Brivanlou, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Qodobada Molecular ee Nerogenesis-ka Nafaqada

Donald C. Lo, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Duke
Xeerarka Neurotrophin ee Xayiraadda Synaptic

Earl K. Miller, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Waxqabadyada Isku-dhafan ee Kortex-Dhexe

Tito A. Serafini, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Iskudhicidda iyo Astaameynta Kobaca Tarbiyada Xaraashka Maaddooyinka

Jerry CP Yin, Ph.D., Cold Shub Xilliga Guga
Xaqiiqo raadinta CREB iyo qaabeynta Xusuusta Muddada-dheer ee Drosophila


Toshinori Hoshi, Ph.D., University of Iowa
Qaadashada Mechanisms of Qaybaha Potassium-ku-Voltage

Alex L. Kolodkin, Ph.D., Jaamicadda Johns Hopkins University of Medicine
Mashruucyada Molecular ee Hagaha Kobcinta Kobaca: Hawlaha Semaphorin ee Waqooyiga Horumarinta

Michael L. Nonet, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington University School of Medicine
Horumarinta Hiddaha ee Horumarinta Qaababka Nuurnimada

Mani Ramaswami, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Arizona
Falanqaynta Hiddaanida Hababka Maareynta Dhibaatada

Michael N. Shadlen, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington
Dhexgalka Dareenka iyo Xusuusta Shaqeynta

Alcino J. Silva, Ph.D., Cold Shub Xilliga Guga
Mashiinnada Jidhka Taageerida Habeynta Xusuusta ee Mouse


Rita J. Balice-Gordon, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Pennsylvania
Waxqabadka Ku-Xaqiijinta iyo Mabaadii Madaxbannaan ee Hoos-u-Dhisidda Hoos-u-Celinta iyo Dayactirka

Mark K. Bennett, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Xeerka Nidaamka Calaamadaha Dhabarka ah iyo Qalabka Fusion Machine by Protein Phosphorylation

David S. Bredt, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Waxqabadyada nafleyda ee Nitric Oxide ee Horumarinta iyo Dib u Dhiska Nuuroniyaanka

David J. Linden, Ph.D., Jaamicadda Johns Hopkins University of Medicine
Meelaha Cudurka ah ee Macluumaadka Kaydinta ee Cerebellum

Richard D. Mooney, Ph.D., Xarunta Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Duke
Nidaamka Jilicsan ee Barashada Afka iyo Xasuusta

Charles J. Weitz, MD, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Biology Molecular ee Mammalian Circadian Pacemaker


Ben Barres, MD, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Horumarinta iyo Shaqeynta Glia

Allison J. Doupe, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Qalabka Nuural-ka ah ee ku takhasusay Barashada Muhiimka ah ee Songbirds

Ehud Y. Isacoff, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Daraasadaha Molecular ee K + Channel Phosphorylation ee Vertebrate Central Neurons

Susan K. McConnell, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Isku-darka Gen-Layer-ka gaarka ah oo ka soo jeeda Mammalian Cerebral Cortex

John J. Ngai, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Falanqaynta Dhulka Tifaftirka Nafaqooyinka Gaarka ah iyo Codaynta Macluumaadka Dhaqanka

Wade G. Regehr, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Doorka Calcium-ka Cusbada leh ee Lagu Sameeyo Dhacdooyinka Dhexe


Ethan Bier, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Cudurka Molecular ee Neurogenesis

Linda D. Buck, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Aqoonsiga Qodobka Aqoonsiga iyo Aqoonsiga Macluumaadka ee Nidaamka Habdhaqanka Mammalian

Gian Garriga, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Isdhexgalka unugyada ee kudhaca jiilka C.elegans HSN Axons

Roderick MacKinnon, MD, Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Isdhexgalka hoose ee isdhexgalka ee Qaybta Kaararka Kaadida

Nipam H. Patel, Ph.D., Hay'adda Carnegie ee Washington
Doorka Gooseberry inta lagu guda jiro Drosophila Neurogenesis

Gabriele V. Ronnett, MD, Ph.D., Jaamicadda Johns Hopkins University of Medicine
Qaabdhismeedka Is-beddelka Calaamadaha Is-beddelka

Daniel Y. Ts'o, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Muuqaal Sawirle ah ee Mechanisms of Behavior Behavior


Hollis T. Cline, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Iowa Medical School
Xeerarka Horumarinta Qanjidhka 'Neurotransmitter' iyo 'Protein Kinases'

Gilles J. Laurent, Ph.D., Machadka Kaliyah ee California
Qeybinta Noocyada Xaafadaha ee Xayawaanka Dareenka-Awooda

Ernest G. Peralta, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Harvard
Muscarinic Acetylcholine Wareegyada Dareenka Calaamadaha Naasnuujiyeyaasha

William M. Roberts, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Oregon
Ion Channels iyo Calcium Intracellular ee Nidaamka Timaha

Thomas L. Schwarz, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Genetics ee VAMP iyo p65: Diiditaanka Siidaynta gudbinta ee Drosophila

Marc T. Tessier-Lavigne, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Nadiifinta, Isticmaalidda, iyo Calaamadaha Chemoattractant ee Hagaha Kobcinta Axons ee Nidaamka Dareemka Dhexe ee Nafaqada


John R. Carlson, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Nidaamka Molecular ee Nidaamka Dhaqanka Drosophila

Michael E. Greenberg, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Xoojinta Korantada Dabeeciga Hoos-u-dhiska ee Neurons

David J. Julius, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Maaddooyinka Molecular ee Hawlaha Qalliinka ee Serotonin

Robert C. Malenka, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Mechanisms-ka Qalabaynta muddada-dheer ee Hippocampus

John D. Sweatt, Ph.D., Baylor College of Medicine
Mechanisms Molecular ee LTP ee gobolka CA1 ee Rat Hippocampus

Kai Zinn, Ph.D., Machadka Kaliyah ee California
Cudurka Molecular ee Qaaxada Axon ee Drosophila Embryo


Utpal Banerjee, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
Neurogenetics ee R7 Horumarinta Unugyada Drosophila

Paul Forscher, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Calaamadda Is-beddelka ee Dhexdhexaadinta Xuubka Naas-Nuujinta-Dhexdhexaadiyaha

Michael D. Mauk, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Texas Medical School
Kaalinta Saamaynta Protein ee Ku-gudbinta Sinjiga iyo Buufiska

Eric J. Nestler, MD, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Aqoonsiga Maaddooyinka (Molecular Characterization) ee Cousuleus

Barbara E. Ranscht, Ph.D., Xarunta Cilmi-baarista Cancer La Jolla
Falanqaynta Qalabka Molecular ee Chick Cell Gogosha Glycoproteins iyo Doorarkooda Kobaca Neerarka Fiber


Michael Bastiani, Ph.D., University of Utah
WQaadashada Kobcinta Kobcinta Diyaarso doorasho ku jirta wajiga dhibaatada

Craig E. Jahr, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Caafimaadka iyo Cilmiga Oregon
Nidaamyada Molecular ee Nidaamka Iskudhinta Nadaafadeed

Christopher R. Kintner, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Naasnuujinta Cudurka Naasaasiga ee Amphibian Embryos

Jonathan A. Raper, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Pennsylvania Medical Center
Calaameysashada Molecules ee lagu Xakameynayo Xakameynta Awoodda Xuddunta Kansarka

Lorna W. Role, Ph.D., Columbia University College of Physicians iyo Qaliinka
Is-beddelashada Xayawaannada Asetylcholine Neconal

Charles Zuker, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Isbeddelka Tilmaamaha ee Nidaamka Muuqaal


Aaron P. Fox, Ph.D., University of Chicago
Xaaladaha Hippocampal Calcium: Biophysical, Pharmacological, iyo Functional Properties

F. Rob Jackson, Ph.D., Worcester Foundation oo loogu talogalay bayoolojiga dabiiciga ah
Nidaamka Molecular ee Habka Fududeynta Saamaynta

Dennis DM O'Leary, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington University School of Medicine
Daraasadaha Horumarinta Naaso-yaqaanka ah ee xooga saara kala-duwanaanta kala duwanaanta

Tim Tully, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Brandeis
Raadinta Maasuqu ee Drosophila Xusuusin Muddo Gaaban ah Mutant Amnesiac iyo Raadinta Qalabka Xusuusta Muddada-fog

Patricia A. Walicke, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Ciladda Hippocampal Neurons iyo Fibroblast Factor


Christine E. Holt, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Axonal Pathfinding ee Cudurka Vertebrate Embryo

Stephen J. Peroutka, MD, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Isdhex galka Calaamadaha Calaamadaha Cudurka Dabaysha ee Serotonin Central Subtypes

Randall N. Pittman, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Biochemical, Immunological, iyo falanqaynta fiidiyowga ee korriinka neuritis

S. Lawrence Zipursky, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
A Habka Haweenta Hodan ah ee Neeriga Isku xirnaanta


Sarah W. Bottjer, Ph.D., University of Southern California
Nidaamka Qalabka Nadaafadda ee Horumarinta Vocal

S. Marc Breedlove, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Berkeley
Saamaynta iyo Saamaynta Saamaynta Saamaynta Nuuriyada

Jane Dodd, Ph.D., Columbia University College of Physicians iyo Qaliinka
Nidaamyada Qalabka ah ee Dhexdhexaadinta Dhexdhexaadinta ee Neurons-ka Afkuubka ah

Haig S. Keshishian, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Go'aaminta iyo kala-duwanaansho ee Neptundergic Neptons ee loo yaqaan "CNS" Embryonic

Paul E. Sawchenko, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Steroid-ku-xirnaansho Buufis ku leh Neef-Shaxda


Ronald L. Davis, Ph.D., Baylor College of Medicine
Nidaamka AMP Nidaamka AMP iyo Cunto ee Drosophila

Scott E. Fraser, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, Irvine
Cilmi-baadhisyo Daraasad iyo Daraasad ah oo ku saabsan Nashqadda Naqshadeynta iyo Iskuxirida Sinqalka

Michael R. Lerner, MD, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Xusuusin iyo Olfaction

William D. Matthew, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School
Falanqaynta Immunological and Biochemical ee Proteoglycans ee Nidaamka Nereysiga ee CNS Embryonic

Jonathan D. Victor, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Cornell University Medical College
Falanqaynta Falcelin-jawaab-celin ee Muuqaal Galka Gaar ah ee Caafimaadka iyo Cudurada


Richard A. Andersen, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Muuqaal-Muuqaal Noocyo Xuub Nalalka Iftiimiya ee Kortekooliyada Casriga ah ee Mareekanka

Clifford B. Saper, MD, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Washington University School of Medicine
Abaabulka Nidaamka Dhiirrigelinta Kortida

Richard H. Scheller, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Baadhitaannada Shaqada, Ururada, iyo Xakamaynta Nidaamka Neeriyada Neerarka ee Neuropeptide ee Aplysia

Mark Allen Tanouye, Ph.D., Machadka Kaliyah ee California
Biology Molecular ee Genes Kanal ee Drosophila

George R. Uhl, MD, Ph.D., Isbitaalka Guud ee Massachusetts
Nidaamka Xanuunada ee Neurotransmitter Systems: Xiriirinta Clinicopathological iyo Xeerarka Nafaqada Gaarka ah


Bradley E. Alger, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Maryland School of Medicine
Niyadjabinta Ka-hortagga Mashruucan wuxuu dhiirri-galin karaa Awood-siinta Daraasaadka ee Miisaanka Hippocampal

Ralph J. Greenspan, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Princeton
Daraasooyinka Genetic and Immunological of Molecules Surface iyo Kaalinta Horumarinta Neuronal ee Mouse

Thomas M. Jessell, Ph.D., Columbia University College of Physicians iyo Qaliinka
Doorka Neuropeptides ee Gudbinta Dareenka iyo Naqdiga

Bruce H. Wainer, MD, Ph.D., University of Chicago
Cholinergic Cholinergic Innasheega ee Caafimaadka iyo Cudurada

Peter J. Whitehouse, MD, Ph.D., Jaamicadda Johns Hopkins University of Medicine
Cudurka Aidsomical / Pathological of The Memory Deficits of Dementia


David G. Amaral, Ph.D., Machadka Salk ee Daraasaadka Biyolojiga
Daraasadaha Horumarinta iyo Xiriirinta Hippocampal

Robert J. Bloch, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Maryland School of Medicine
Macromolecules ee ku lug leh qaabaynta sinqaanka

Stanley M. Goldin, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Dib-u-soo-kabashada, Nadiifinta, iyo Immunocytochemical Localization of Norronal Ion Transport Proteins of Mammalian Maskaxda

Stephen G. Lisberger, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Baaxad ahaanshaha 'Vestibulo-ocular Reflex'

Lee L. Rubin, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Nidaamka Xadidaada ee Nidaamka Sharciga ee Musqusha-Musqusha


Theodore W. Berger, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Pittsburgh
Dhismayaasha Maskaxda ee Amnesia Human: Wax-barashada Nidaamka Caleenta Hippocampal-Subicular-Cingulate-Cingulate

Thomas H. Brown, Ph.D., Machadka Cilmi-baarista ee Hope
Falanqaynta Mucaawin ee Awoodda Xurmaynta ee Hippocampal Neurons

Steven J. Burden, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Lamapal Basin Asthmaatiga ah ee Horumarinta iyo Dib u Dhiska Qalabka Nuromuscular

Corey S. Goodman, Ph.D., Stanford University School of Medicine
Kala soocista, Isbeddelka, iyo Dhimashada Unugyada Keli ah ee Xilliga Kobaca Nuuraanta

William A. Harris, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Diego
Tilmaamaha Qaan-celinta iyo Hawlgalinta Hawlgabka ee Horumarinta


Robert P. Elde, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Minnesota Medical School
Daraasooyinka Immunohistochemical ee Limbic, Forward, iyo Hypothalmic Pathways Peptidergic

Yuh-Nung Jan, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Cilmi-baarista ku-oolka ah ee Isticmaalidda Ganglia oo ah qaababka qaababka

Xaawa Marder, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Brandeis
Nidaamka Neurotransmitter ee Noocyada Korontada ku xiran Nidaamka Nidaamka

James A. Nathanson, MD, Ph.D., Yale Jaamacadda Daawada
Nidaamyada Hormoon Qalabka Dib-u-habeenta ee Nidaamka Xeerka Dhiigga Dhiigga Dhiigga iyo Xajmiga Dheecaannada Dareemaha ee Cerebrospinal

Louis F. Reichardt, Ph.D., Jaamacadda California, San Francisco
Baarista Hiddaha ee Hawlaha Dareemaha ee Dhaqanka


Linda M. Hall, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Doorka Qalitaanka Cholinergic ee Barashada iyo Xasuusta

Charles A. Marotta, MD, Ph.D., Dugsiga Caafimaadka Harvard
Xakamaynta Sinnaanta Tubulin ee Sameeynta Horumarinta

Urs S. Rutishauser, Ph.D., Jaamacadda Rockefeller
Kaalinta Qalabka Cell-Cell Adhesion ee Horumarinta Unugyada Neural

David C. Spray, Ph.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Kontoroolka Xoolaha ee Quudinta ee Navanax

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