Hla mus rau cov ntsiab lus

Cov Pauv Nyiaj


Junjie Guo, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Mechanism and functions of repeat expansion self-exonization in C9orf72 ALS/FTD

As intricate as the DNA replication process is, sometimes errors happen. Some neurological diseases are linked to a particular type of error called nucleotide repeat expansion (NRE), in which a short DNA segment is repeated over and over in hundreds or more copies. Where these repeats occur in the genome matters: during a critical step in gene expression called RNA splicing, only certain pieces (exons) of the RNA transcribed from DNA are joined together to become the final messenger RNA, whereas the remaining RNA sequences (introns) between exons will be broken down.

However, in some cases, introns with NREs are not broken down, but manage to instruct the making of a variety of repeat proteins that are harmful to nerve cells. A well-known example is an intron NRE within a gene called C9orf72, which is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In his research, Dr. Guo hopes to uncover how this intron NRE disrupts RNA splicing and causes the production of toxic repeat proteins.

Guo and his team will first test a variety of NRE mutations to see which are able to change the splicing pattern so the intron can escape degradation. Their second aim will test the hypothesis that these changes in the splicing pattern are critical for the C9orf72 NRE RNA to increase its export out from the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm and instruct the making of toxic repeat proteins. Finally, their research will explore the possibility that differences between the ways in which each cell splices its RNAs may explain why certain types of nerve cells such as motor neurons are more vulnerable in ALS.

Juliet K. Knowles, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA

Neuron-to-OPC synapses in adaptive and maladaptive myelination

In her role as a pediatric clinician specializing in epilepsy, Dr. Knowles sees firsthand how this neurological disorder (actually a collection of several related but distinct diseases) is experienced and how it progresses. As a neuroscientist, she has the opportunity to help uncover how and why. Knowles and her team are focusing their research on the role of neuronal activity in myelination in patients with generalized epilepsy, a common form of the disease that is characterized by the presence of seizures and absence seizures.

Myelination is the process by which the axons (projections) of neurons are encased in myelin, which enhances the speed of axon signal transmission, and makes neural networks more efficient. The process involves oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) which can develop into oligodendrocytes, cells that produce myelin. In earlier research, Knowles uncovered that the neural activity of absence seizures promotes myelination of the seizure circuit, making it more efficient. This appears to lead to an increase in absence seizure frequency and severity; when Knowles and her team blocked the OPCs’ response to neural activity, seizure-induced myelination did not occur, and the seizures didn’t progress.

Knowles’ new research will now explore how this happens and identify possible approaches for future therapies. One aim will document the neuron to OPC synapses in both epileptic and healthy mouse models. A second aim will compare neuron-to-OPC synaptic activity and synaptic gene expression in healthy or epileptic mice – specifically focusing on how myelination promoted by a seizure differs from that promoted by learning. A third aim will explore how disrupting the post-synaptic receptors on oligodendrocytes affects the progression of epilepsy, not just in terms of seizures, but related symptoms such as disrupted sleep and cognitive impairment, both of which are common in individuals affected by epilepsy.

Akhila Rajan, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Seattle, WA

Adipocyte-brain mitochondrial signaling and its impacts on brain function

Communication between organs and the brain is critical to an animal’s survival and health. Signals tell the brain when the body needs more energy, is hungry, or needs to sleep, move or perform countless other tasks. But recent research has revealed that communication can include more than hormones – packets of material can also be passed to brain cells. Dr. Rajan’s research focuses on the phenomena of fat cells (adipocytes) sending bits of mitochondria – the organelles within cells that generate energy, among other roles – to the brain, and how that affects brain function.

Previous research has found that when these mitochondrial bits reach the brain, it makes the fly model Rajan’s team works with more hungry, specifically for high sugar foods, promoting a cycle of obesity and further sending of material. There is a known correlation between obesity and a range of neurological disorders, including sleep disorders and cognitive decline, and this new research hopes to shed light on these links and potentially identify targets for future therapies.

Working with the fly model, Rajan and her team aim to identify how exactly these bits of mitochondria are gaining access to neurons in the brain without being degraded; what happens when these bits of fat cell mitochondria integrate with neuronal mitochondria, specifically how it alters an animal’s behavior in terms of sleep and feeding; and what effect this process has on neuronal health overall. The research will take advantage of very precise genetic manipulations at which Rajan’s lab excels, involve cross-disciplinary insights provided by lab team members, and use advanced insect physiology chambers that let the team document feeding and changes in behavior at a level unavailable to previous generations of researchers.

Humsa Venkatesh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

The neurobiology of glioma: Understanding malignant neural circuits instructing tumor growth

Cancers, including brain tumors, have traditionally been studied at a cellular or molecular level. Researchers are addressing questions such as what subpopulation of cells are involved, how do they mutate, and what can we do to those malignant cells to get them to stop replicating? Dr. Venkatesh is interested in looking at how the nervous system is also involved in cancer progression and has already discovered that neurons form synaptic connections to cancer cells.

Venkatesh and her lab are studying both primary and secondary brain tumors but have evidence that these findings apply to cancers in other parts of the body. The insight that tumors are interacting with neurons, and not just killing off nerves as had once been thought, has opened many possibilities. These malignant growths are taking signals from the nervous system intended to pass information to other cells and instead reinterpreting them to instruct the cancer to grow. Now researchers can explore how to harness the nervous system to help treat or manage this malignant disease. In an exciting development, Venkatesh’s previous work in this space has already led to clinical trials that repurpose existing drugs targeting the nervous system and apply them to cancer treatment.

This new research goes even further into understanding the mechanisms governing neural circuit activity-driven glioma progression. Using advanced neuroscience technologies and patient-derived cell lines, Venkatesh will be able to modulate and study the malignant neural networks, encompassing both neurons and tumor cells, that influence cancer growth. Understanding this activity-dependent mechanism and how it can be targeted without disrupting healthy neuronal function could open new fields of cancer research and novel therapeutic opportunities.


Lisa Beutler, MD, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine in Endocrinology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL

Dissecting lub plab-hlwb dynamics hauv qab anorexia

Kev pub mis yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm tus tsiaj ciaj sia, yog li nws tsis yog qhov xav tsis thoob tias lub plab thiab lub hlwb nyob hauv kev sib txuas lus tas li los tswj cov khoom noj kom tsim nyog thiab lub cev ruaj khov. Txawm li cas los xij, nyob rau hauv lub xub ntiag ntawm o, qhov system no yuav tawg. Ib qho ntawm cov cim tseem ceeb ntawm kev mob anorexia (tsis yog yuav tsum tsis meej pem nrog anorexia nervosa) yog qhov tsis qab los noj mov, uas tuaj yeem ua rau mob tsis txaus noj. Cov kev kho tam sim no - suav nrog IV-xa khoom noj khoom haus thiab plab hnyuv plab - tuaj yeem txo lub neej zoo thiab muaj txiaj ntsig tseem ceeb.

Dr. Beutler lub hom phiaj siv kev soj ntsuam neural siab heev thiab kev tswj xyuas cov txheej txheem los txiav cov txheej txheem hauv qab uas cuam tshuam nrog kev mob anorexia. Beutler's pab neeg yuav siv calcium imaging los qhia txog cov teebmeem ntawm ib tus neeg cytokines (cov cim qhia tawm thaum muaj mob) muaj rau cov pab pawg tshwj xeeb ntawm kev noj cov neurons. Nws pab pawg kuj tseem yuav siv cov cuab yeej cuab tam caj ces los sim hla qhov tsis tsim nyog 'tsis txhob noj' cov cim uas tshwm sim los ntawm qhov mob hnyav. Thaum kawg, nws yuav kawm seb cov qauv tshwj xeeb ntawm cov kab mob inflammatory hloov cov lus teb neural rau kev noj zaub mov zoo li cas.

Beutler txoj kev tshawb fawb yuav yog thawj zaug los kawm txog cov txheej txheem tshwj xeeb ntawm qib kev nthuav dav hauv cov kab mob muaj sia. Los ntawm kev txheeb xyuas lub hom phiaj ntawm lub paj hlwb ntawm cytokine tso tawm, thiab txiav txim siab yuav ua li cas qhov no modulates qab los noj mov, Beutler vam tias yuav txheeb xyuas cov hom phiaj kho mob rau kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus cuam tshuam nrog cov kab mob inflammatory. Tsis tas li ntawd, nws lub chaw kuaj mob lub hom phiaj los tsim ib txoj hauv kev ntawm lub plab-hlwb-kev tiv thaiv kab mob uas yuav muaj kev cuam tshuam loj tsis yog rau kev kho mob-kho anorexia, tab sis dav rau yav tom ntej noj thiab kev tshawb fawb metabolism.

Jeremy Hnub, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Heersink Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Tshuaj, University of Alabama - Birmingham; thiab Ian Maze, Ph.D., Xib fwb – Departments of Neuroscience and Pharmacological Sciences, Director – Center for Neural Epigenome Engineering, Icahn School of Medicine ntawm Mount Sinai, New York City

Leveraging ib leeg-cell epigenomics rau tsom manipulation ntawm tshuaj-activated ensembles

Kev quav yeeb tshuaj yog ib qho teeb meem loj rau tib neeg thiab tib neeg tib neeg. Thaum muaj kev tshawb fawb tseem ceeb rau kev nkag siab thiab kho kev quav tshuaj, 60% ntawm cov neeg kho yuav raug kev mob rov qab. Qhov tseeb, qhov kev ntshaw rau cov tshuaj yuav nce ntxiv nyob rau lub sijhawm, incubating nyob rau hauv cov neeg uas tau quav yeeb tshuaj txawm tias tsis muaj tshuaj ntxiv. Dr. Hnub thiab Dr. Maze tsom rau kev tshawb fawb txog kev quav yeeb quav tshuaj ntawm qib tshiab - drilling mus rau epigenetic teebmeem ntawm kev siv yeeb tshuaj ntawm cov hlwb tshwj xeeb ntawm ib theem ntawm tes, thiab yuav ua li cas cov no tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev rov qab los.

Cov kev tshawb fawb ua ntej tau pom tias kev raug tshuaj los ntawm lub sijhawm hloov pauv cov noob qhia li cas. Hauv cov ntsiab lus, cov tshuaj muaj peev xwm hijack genetic tswj cov ntsiab lus hu ua "enhancers," uas thaum qhib ua rau qee cov noob tau nthuav tawm hauv hlwb hlwb uas txhawb cov neeg nrhiav cov tshuaj no. Hnub thiab Maze tau tsim ib txoj haujlwm los txheeb xyuas cov kev txhim kho no hauv cov xovtooj ntawm tes tshwj xeeb uas tau ua haujlwm (lossis tsis nyob ntsiag to) los ntawm cov yeeb yaj kiab - nkag siab zoo thiab tshawb fawb cov tshuaj tiv thaiv - thiab tom qab ntawd tsim thiab ntxig cov kab mob kis mus rau hauv cov hlwb uas tsuas yog ua haujlwm hauv lub xub ntiag ntawm uas unsilenced enhancer. Siv lub tswv yim no, tus kab mob vector yuav nthuav qhia nws cov khoom thauj nkaus xwb hauv cov khoom siv ntawm tes uas cuam tshuam los ntawm cov yeeb yaj kiab thiab tso cai rau cov kws tshawb nrhiav optogenetically lossis chemogenetically qhib lossis deactivate cov hlwb cuam tshuam.

Nrog rau qhov no, Hnub thiab Maze yuav cuam tshuam cov pawg los tshawb xyuas lawv cov teebmeem ntawm kev nrhiav tshuaj yeeb hauv tus qauv nas ntawm kev tswj hwm tus kheej ntawm tus kheej. Lawv txoj haujlwm tsim los ntawm kev nce qib tsis ntev los no hauv kev muaj peev xwm los tsom rau ib tus neeg lub hlwb thiab cov pab pawg me ntawm cov hlwb, tsis yog tag nrho cov pejxeem ntawm cov hlwb lossis cov cell hom raws li tau ua kom pom tseeb ntawm kev tshawb fawb yav dhau los. Tam sim no nws muaj peev xwm tsom mus rau lub luag haujlwm tshwj xeeb ntawm cov hlwb ua si, kev cia siab yog tias cov kev kho mob zoo dua tuaj yeem tsim kho uas hais txog cov caj ces ntawm kev quav tshuaj thiab rov qab los, thiab tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam tsis zoo ntawm kev tswj cov neeg loj dua, tsis tshua muaj hom phiaj ntawm cov hlwb hlwb.

Stephan Lammel, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Neurobiology, University of California - Berkeley

Neurotensin kho cov kev cai ntawm hedonic noj tus cwj pwm thiab rog

Lub hlwb yog obsessed nrog nrhiav thiab noj zaub mov. Thaum pom cov zaub mov muaj calorie ntau - tsis tshua muaj hauv cov tsiaj qus - tsiaj txhu yuav noj nws sai sai. Rau tib neeg uas tau npaj nkag mus rau cov zaub mov muaj calorie ntau, qhov kev xav qee zaum ua rau muaj kev noj ntau dhau, rog, thiab muaj teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv. Tab sis kev tshawb fawb kuj tau pom tias qee zaum, kev tsav tsheb rau cov khoom noj uas muaj calorie ntau tuaj yeem txo qis thaum cov zaub mov zoo li no ib txwm muaj. Dr. Lammel nrhiav kev txheeb xyuas cov txheej txheem neural thiab cov cheeb tsam hauv lub hlwb uas cuam tshuam nrog kev noj zaub mov zoo li no thiab nws txoj cai.

Cov kev tshawb fawb xyoo dhau los tau txuas kev noj zaub mov rau lub hypothalamus, ib qho qub thiab tob ntawm lub hlwb. Txawm li cas los xij, cov pov thawj tseem qhia txog lub luag haujlwm rau qhov khoom plig thiab qhov chaw txaus siab ntawm lub hlwb. Lammel txoj kev tshawb fawb ua ntej pom tias kev sib txuas los ntawm lub lateral nucleus accumbens (NAcLat) mus rau ventral tegmental cheeb tsam (VTA) yog lub hauv paus rau kev noj zaub mov hedonistic - ua kom cov kev sib txuas ntawm optogenetically coj mus rau kev noj zaub mov muaj calorie ntau ntau, tab sis tsis yog zaub mov noj. Lwm qhov kev tshawb fawb tau txheeb xyuas cov amino acid neurotensin (NTS) ua tus neeg ua si hauv kev tswj hwm kev noj zaub mov, ntxiv rau lwm lub luag haujlwm.

Lammel txoj kev tshawb fawb nrhiav los qhia txog lub circuitry thiab lub luag hauj lwm ntawm ntau qhov chaw ntawm lub hlwb uas coj tsiaj mus noj hedonistically raws li zoo raws li lub luag hauj lwm ntawm NTS, uas yog qhia nyob rau hauv lub NAcLat. Cov ntsiab lus tau nthuav tawm nrog kev noj zaub mov zoo lossis kev noj zaub mov muaj calorie ntau ntau, thiab kev ua ub no ntawm NAcLat-to-VTA txoj hauv kev tau sau tseg thiab ua raws li kev coj noj coj ua. Nws kuj tseem yuav taug qab cov kev hloov pauv raws sijhawm nrog rau lub sijhawm ntev rau cov zaub mov hedonistic. Kev tshawb fawb ntxiv yuav saib cov kev hloov pauv hauv NTS muaj nyob hauv cov hlwb, thiab seb nws qhov muaj nyob hauv ntau npaum li cas cuam tshuam rau kev ua haujlwm ntawm tes. Los ntawm kev nkag siab txog txoj hauv kev thiab cov tshuab molecular uas cuam tshuam nrog kev noj zaub mov thiab kev rog rog, txoj haujlwm no yuav ua rau muaj kev mob siab rau yav tom ntej pab tswj kev rog.

Lindsay Schwarz, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN

Txheeb xyuas lub hlwb circuits uas txuas ua pa thiab kev paub txog lub xeev

Ua pa tsis siv neeg hauv cov tsiaj, tab sis tsis zoo li lwm yam tseem ceeb hauv kev ua haujlwm - lub plawv dhia, kev zom zaub mov, thiab lwm yam - tsiaj muaj peev xwm tswj tau ua pa. Kev ua pa kuj tseem khi rau kev xav thiab lub siab lub ntsws nyob rau hauv ob txoj kev: kev xav ua rau muaj kev hloov pauv hauv kev ua pa, tab sis nco ntsoov hloov ua pa kuj tau pom tias muaj kev cuam tshuam rau lub siab. Hauv nws txoj kev tshawb fawb, Dr. Schwarz lub hom phiaj txhawm rau txheeb xyuas qhov ua tsis taus pa ntawm cov neurons tau xaiv los ntawm lub cev thiab kev txawj ntse thiab qhia cov cheeb tsam hauv hlwb uas lawv txuas nrog. Qhov kev tshawb fawb no tuaj yeem ua pov thawj pab tau rau hauv kev kawm ntau yam kab mob hauv lub paj hlwb uas ua rau ua pa cuam tshuam, xws li cov me nyuam mos tuag tam sim ntawd (SIDS), central pw tsaug zog apnea, thiab kev ntxhov siab.

Schwarz lub hom phiaj los ua kom zoo dua ntawm kev nce qib hauv neural tagging los kawm cov neurons uas, nyob tob rau hauv lub hlwb qia, ib txwm ua nyuaj rau kev cais thiab sau cia hauv vivo. Tab sis nrog kev ua si tagging, Schwarz tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas cov neurons tau qhib thaum lub sijhawm innate vs. nquag ua pa. Nyob rau yav tas los, cov neeg kawm tau ua rau muaj kev ntxhov siab uas ua rau lawv khov thiab hloov lawv ua pa. Cov kws tshawb nrhiav tuaj yeem tshuaj xyuas cov cim npe neurons txhawm rau txheeb xyuas qhov twg ua haujlwm hauv cov ntsiab lus, thiab hais txog seb cov no sib tshooj nrog cov neurons nquag thaum lub sijhawm ua pa.

Lub hom phiaj thib ob yog txhawm rau txheeb xyuas tus lej molecular ntawm kev ua pa ntsig txog neurons uas tau ua haujlwm thaum lub caij txias kom nkag siab meej dua tias cov hlwb twg yog ib feem ntawm lub tshuab ua pa. Thaum kawg, tau txheeb xyuas cov neurons, Schwarz yuav siv cov kab mob vector uas tsim los ntawm lwm tus kws tshawb fawb los txiav txim siab seb qhov twg ntawm lub hlwb cov hlwb txuas mus rau. Kev txheeb xyuas qhov sib txuas ntawm lub hlwb thiab ua pa, sib tshooj ntawm kev nco qab thiab tsis nco qab ua pa circuits, thiab kev sib txuas ntawm kev ua pa thiab qee yam kab mob tuaj yeem ua rau lub hauv paus rau kev kho kom zoo dua qub nrog rau kev nkag siab tag nrho ntawm peb txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog siv li cas.


Rui Chang, Ph.D., Yaam Kws Tshawb Fawb, Cov Chaw Haujlwm ntawm Neuroscience thiab ntawm Cellular thiab Molecular Physiology, Yale University Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Tshuaj

Sreeganga Chandra, Ph.D. Lwm tus xibfwb, Cov saib xyuas kev mob ntawm Neurology thiab Neuroscience, Yale University Lub Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Tshuaj

Los ntawm plab mus rau lub hlwb: Nkag siab kev tshaj tawm ntawm Parkinson tus Kab Mob

Kab mob Parkinson yog ib hom muaj npe tab sis tseem muaj qhov tsis meej txog lub cev tsis zoo uas ua rau lub neej zoo. Raws li yuav ua li cas tus kab mob pib tsis paub txog, tab sis kev tshawb fawb tsis ntev los no qhia tau tias tsawg kawg qee tus neeg mob Parkinson cov neeg mob pib txhawm rau lub plab thiab tawm mus rau lub hlwb los ntawm tus kab mob paum, qhov ntev, nyuaj, multifaceted cov leeg sib txuas rau ntau yam kabmob rau lub hlwb.

Dr. Chang thiab Dr. Chandra noj cov lus piav qhia hauv plab no mus rau qib tom ntej nrog lawv cov kev tshawb fawb. Lawv thawj ob lub hom phiaj xav nrhiav kom paub meej qhov twg ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv qhov chaw mos xa mus rau Parkinson cov txheej txheem thiab cov txheej txheem uas lub plab thiab cov neurons sib cuam tshuam. Cov kev sim tau siv cov qauv nas, kev txhaj tshuaj ntawm cov protein uas tuaj yeem ua rau Parkinson cov ntaub ntawv, thiab cov txheej txheem tshiab los cim npe thiab xaiv qhov ua kom tshem tawm (kaw) hom tshwj xeeb ntawm neurons. Los ntawm cov kev sim uas qee cov neurons raug txo, cov protein tau qhia, thiab cov nas tau kuaj rau Parkinson, pab pawg yuav nqaim rau cov neeg sib tw tshwj xeeb. Hauv lub hom phiaj thib peb, pab pawg cia siab tias yuav nthuav tawm cov txheej txheem uas tus kabmob xa mus rau theem tom qab cov pa roj (neurons).

Cov kev tshawb fawb yog kev sib koom tes, kev ua haujlwm nrog kev sib koom tes los ntawm Dr. Chang cov kev tshawb fawb txog lub paum ntawm lub paum thiab cov leeg nqaij thiab Dr. Chandra cov kws tshaj lij hauv Parkinson tus kab mob thiab nws cov kev kawm. Nws cia siab tias nrog kev nkag siab zoo dua, muaj kev nkag siab ntau ntxiv txog qhov yuav ua li cas tus kab mob mus txog rau lub hlwb, cov hom phiaj tshiab los ntawm lub hlwb tuaj yeem nrhiav tau kev kho mob uas muaj ntau qhov tseeb, tso cai rau kev kho mob qeeb lossis txo qhov pib ntawm Parkinson yam tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam rau lub hlwb lossis cuam tshuam rau ntau lwm cov haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm qhov txawv txav tsis txaus ntawm qhov quav ntawm lub paum lossis lub qhov quav.

Ncig Teb Chaws Hultman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Chav Haujlwm ntawm Molecular Physiology thiab Biophysics, Iowa Neuroscience Institute - Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa

Lub hlwb sib txuas rau cov xaim hluav taws xob hauv migraine: Rau txoj kev txhim kho cov kev sib koom tes network

Mob taub hau yog qhov dav, ntau zaus cuam tshuam kev cuam tshuam. Nws yog txoj thiab tsis yooj yim kho; Cov neeg raug tsim txom muaj cov tsos mob sib txawv, feem ntau tshwm sim los ntawm qhov kev hnov mob siab, uas yuav suav nrog qhov mob, xeev siab, qhov muag tsis pom kev, thiab lwm yam cuam tshuam. Mob taub hau feem ntau cuam tshuam rau ntau qhov chaw ntawm lub hlwb, tab sis tsis yog tas li, thiab cov kev kho mob feem ntau yuav tsis muaj tib yam kev cuam tshuam ntawm ib tug neeg mus rau lwm tus. Dr. Hultman kev tshawb fawb tawm tswv yim txog rau kev kuaj mob pob qij txha siv cov cuab yeej tshiab nrog lub hom phiaj los ua kom pom txoj hauv kev tshiab rau kev kho mob.

Cov kev tshawb fawb tsim tau los ntawm nws pab neeg qhov kev tshawb pom ntawm cov khoom siv sib txawv, ntsuas kev ntsuas hluav taws xob cov qauv hauv lub hlwb khi rau lub xeev tshwj xeeb. Siv kev cog hniav los ntsuas lub hlwb kev ua ub no hauv cov qauv nas sawv cev rau ob leeg mob hnyav thiab mob taub hau ntev, nws pab neeg yuav soj ntsuam ib feem twg ntawm lub hlwb nas raug qhib thiab nyob rau qhov twg tshwm sim ntawm cov nplai millisecond thawj zaug. Lub tshuab kev kawm yuav pab npaj cov ntaub ntawv sau, thiab cov ntawv qhia xaiv raug tsim tsim tuaj yeem siv los pab txheeb xyuas cov ntu ntawm lub hlwb cuam tshuam, thiab cov kev hloov pauv tau ntev mus ntev li cas, tshwj xeeb los ntawm kev pib mob ntsws. Cov kev sim sim tseem kuaj cov qauv hluav taws xob txuas nrog rau tus cwj pwm teb; piv txwv li, cov cim hluav taws xob pom nyob rau hauv lub hlwb ntawm ib qho kev qhia uas nrhiav kom tsis txhob muaj lub teeb ci ci yuav muaj txoj hauv kev los kwv yees ntau dua cov lus teb rau mob taub hau heev.

Ntu thib ob ntawm Dr. Hultman kev tshawb fawb yuav siv tib cov cuab yeej los saib seb muaj kev kho mob thiab kho ua haujlwm licas. Cov kev xaiv hauv kev xaiv ntawm cov kev kho yuav raug sau thiab sib piv nrog cov kev tswj kom paub seb feem twg ntawm lub paj hlwb raug cuam tshuam thiab nyob rau hauv txoj kev twg, pab qhia qhov cuam tshuam ntawm txhua txoj kev kho / prophylactic, nrog rau cov kev cuam tshuam ntawm kev siv tshuaj ntau dhau ntawm mob taub hau, a cov kev mob tshwm sim los ntawm cov neeg mob taub hau uas nrhiav kev tswj hwm lawv tus mob.

Gregory Scherrer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Cell Biology thiab Physiology, UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina.

Elucidating neural lub hauv paus ntawm kev mob tsis kaj siab: Kev voj voog thiab cov kev kho mob tshiab los xaus kev mob sib kis ob ntawm kev mob ntev thiab kev siv tshuaj opioid

Qhov mob yog li cas peb lub hlwb pom qhov ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam kev xav, tab sis nws tsis yog qhov kev paub ib zaug. Nws muaj ntau txoj haujlwm, koom nrog kev sib kis los ntawm cov hlab ntsha mus rau tus txha caj qaum thiab lub hlwb, kev ua ntawm lub teeb liab, ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam rov qab, thiab tom qab ntawd rov qab ua neural ua koom nrog kev nqis tes ua rau soothe tus mob nyob rau hauv lub sijhawm ze thiab cov txheej txheem kev kawm kom tsis txhob nyob lawm yav tom ntej.

Kev mob kuj tseem yog lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm dab tsi Dr. Scherrer pom tias muaj ob qhov kev sib kis: kev sib kis mob mus ntev, cuam tshuam rau 116 lab tus neeg Asmeskas, thiab opioid phaum mob uas tshwm sim los ntawm kev siv tshuaj tsis muaj zog thiab feem ntau ntxiv cov tshuaj los kho nws. Hauv nws txoj kev tshawb fawb, Dr. Scherrer tab tom nrhiav kom paub meej meej meej npaum li cas ntawm lub hlwb tau sau txoj kev tsis kaj siab ntawm kev mob. Ntau cov tshuaj nrhiav kev cuam tshuam rau lub siab ntawd tsis kaj siab tab sis feem ntau dhau hwv thiab kuj ua rau lub txiaj ntsig thiab ua pa hluav taws xob, ua rau muaj yees (thiab los ntawm kev siv lub zog ntxiv) thiab lub tshuab pa ua rau lub luag haujlwm rau opioid-tuag.

Scherrer pab pawg yuav tsim kom muaj lub hlwb nthuav dav daim duab qhia kev mob siab siv txoj kev mob caj dab thiab ntaus cim ntawm cov neurons ua kom mob los ntawm kev mob nrog cov cim fluorescent. Thib ob, qhib lub hlwb paj hlwb yuav raug cais tawm thiab lawv cov caj ces yuav raug ua ntu zuj zus, nrhiav cov neeg txais tau ntawm cov hlwb ntawd uas yuav yog lub hom phiaj rau kev kho mob. Thaum kawg, qhov kev tshawb fawb yuav tshawb xyuas cov sib txuas hauv cov tsev qiv ntawv tshuaj uas tsim los cuam tshuam nrog ib qho ntawm cov cim teeb meem no; cov teebmeem uas cov tebchaw muaj rau qhov tsis kaj siab ntawm qhov mob; thiab seb cov tebchaw no tseem muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev siv ntau dhau lossis cuam tshuam rau lub tshuab ua pa. Thaum kawg, lub hom phiaj yog txhawm rau pab nrhiav txoj hauv kev zoo dua ntxiv los daws txhua hom kev mob thiab txhim kho txoj kev noj qab nyob zoo thiab lub neej zoo ntawm cov neeg mob uas tau ntsib nws.