Profound changes in the way food is grown, processed, distributed, consumed, and wasted over the last several decades have led to increasing threats to a future of food that is sustainable, equitable, and secure, particularly when coupled with climate change and shifting global economics, politics, and demographics. We need to do things differently. True cost accounting (TCA) is a critical tool to help us, as a global community, better understand the impacts of food systems, address the most harmful practices, and find new, positive pathways forward. By evaluating the impacts – both positive and negative – inherent in different food systems, and making these impacts transparent, decision-makers on farms and in governments, institutions, and businesses can make better-informed decisions that take into account the economic, environmental, and social impacts of their choices